Dictionary of Palestinian Political Terms
ABNAA AL BALAD
ABSENTEE PROPERTY LAW
Legislation created by Israel in 1950 for the purpose of legalizing changes to land ownership. The law defines an “absentee” as a person who at any time in the period between 29 November 1947 and 1 September 1948, had left their residence and property either for territory outside of the 1948 borders of the State of Israel, Arab states including Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Yemen, Egypt, Jordan (the latter two meaning also the West Bank and Gaza Strip), or any territory occupied by Arab military forces. Absentee property was vested in the Israeli Custodian of Absentee Property, with no possibility of appeal or compensation, who then sold it to the Development Authority, which was empowered by the Knesset to acquire and prepare lands for the benefit of newly arriving Jewish immigrants. Thereby, the “absentee property” that was left behind by Palestinian refugees in 1948 (and also some of the property of Palestinians who are now citizens of Israel) was transferred to the State of Israel. This process authorized the theft of the property of approximately one million Arabs, seized by Israel in 1948. Following the 1967 War, Israeli law was applied to East Jerusalem, but it was decided that the status of absentee would not apply to residents of East Jerusalem. However, West Bank residents with property in Jerusalem remained in a gray area: while considered absentees under the law and prohibited from officially registering their rights to the land, it did not affect their ownership of the property in practice. Owners could prove their existence and claim their property even though they were considered absentees under the law. In a cabinet meeting on 8 July 2004, this practice was rescinded after being in place for 37 years. In January 2005, the Israeli government decided to apply the Absentee Property Law to East Jerusalem property. In February 2005, Israel's Attorney General Menachem Mazuz ordered the government to cancel implementation of the law in East Jerusalem, stating that it violated obligations under international law. In 2015, a seven-justice panel of the Supreme Court approved the application of the Absentee Property Law to assets in East Jerusalem.
ABU ALA PERES PLAN
Proposal discussed in confidential talks between Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLC Speaker Ahmad Qrei’a (Abu Ala’), apparently authorized by Israeli Prime Minister Sharon, in the winter of 2001. The plan suggested first a ceasefire and concentration of weapons and weapon bearers under one authority (PA), followed by an Israeli recognition of a (demilitarized) Palestinian state on areas presently under PA control (42% of the West Bank; 80% of the Gaza Strip) and Palestinian recognition of Israel as a Jewish state as a starting point for renewed final status negotiations on final borders and other outstanding issues (including Jerusalem, settlements, and refugees). The suggested timetable for the implementation of the agreement was one year. The document remained unofficial, did not gain much support, and was neither approved by the Israeli government nor by the PA.
ABU ALI MUSTAFA BRIGADES
(also: Martyr Abu Ali Mustafa Brigades) Military wing of the PFLP (originally the Red Eagles Brigades), named after PFLP Secretary-General Mustafa Zabri, better known as Abu Ali Mustafa, who was assassinated by an Israeli missile strike at his office in Ramallah on 27 August 2001. On 16 July 2007, the Brigades rejected President Mahmoud Abbas’ call on all Palestinian resistance groups to surrender their weapons to the PA, saying that they would not abandon their resistance until the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza has ended.
ABU KABIR MASSACRE
Assault by Jewish Haganah paramilitaries on the Jaffa neighboring village of Abu Kabir on 12-13 February 1948, in which 13 Arabs were killed and some 22 wounded. Around this time the neighborhood was abandoned by most of its inhabitants and guarded by several dozen militiamen. A second major attack on Abu Kabir occurred on 13 March 1948 in which the Haganah shelled the neighborhood with mortars and blew up a number of houses, ostensibly intended to destroy the area.
ABU MAZEN BEILIN PLAN
(formal: Framework for the Conclusion of a Final Status Agreement Between Israel and the PLO) Plan drawn up by then-PLO Secretary-General Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) and Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Yossi Beilin (Labor) on 31 October 1995, the existence of which was denied by both parties for five years before being unofficially published in September 2000. The draft, which was never formally adopted by either Israel or the Palestinians, envisioned the establishment of a Palestinian state no later than May 1999 and included the following proposals: Israeli withdrawal (conducted in stages until completion in 2007) from territory of the future Palestinian state, Israelis remaining in settlements inside the Palestinian state to be subject to Palestinian sovereignty and rule of law, offered Palestinian citizenship or choose to remain as alien residents, City of Jerusalem (expanded to include adjacent Palestinian villages including Abu Dis) to be jointly administered, with autonomous sub-municipalities for each side. West Jerusalem (Yerushalayim) recognized as the Israeli capital and East Jerusalem (Al-Quds) as the Palestinian capital (the seat of government being in Abu Dis), and the guarantee of freedom of worship and access to all Holy Sites for members of all faiths and religions. The agreement also proposed Israeli recognition of the Palestinian right of return and compensation/ rehabilitation for moral and material loss, and Palestinian declaration of readiness to accept that the realities and prerequisites of peace render the right of return impracticable thus agreeing on the formation of an International Commission for the final settlement of all aspects of the refugee issue.
ABU NIDAL ORGANIZATION
ANO, also: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, or Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims) Anti-Arafat faction established by Sabri Khalil Al-Banna (Abu Nidal) that split from Fatah in 1974 and, after an assassination attempt on Abu Mazen, was expelled from the PLO with Al-Banna sentenced to death. Abu Nidal himself is believed to have been involved in the planning of military operations in Europe such as at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, at times under the name ‘Black September’. The ANO is also believed to be behind the assassinations of PLO ‘moderates’ in the late 1970s/ early 1980s (e.g., Said Hamami). It aimed at derailing diplomatic relations between the PLO and the West, while advocating for the destruction of Israel. It had close ties to Syria, Libya and Egypt, though all closed down the ANO’s offices in their countries by 1999. The group is listed as a ‘terrorist’ organization by the US State Department. Leaders and associates are now thought to be in Iraq, with cells in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. Since Abu Nidal’s death in Iraq in 2002, it is not clear who the new leader is, or whether his followers have disbanded or just joined other radical Islamic groups in Iraq. Although no major attack has been attributed to the group since Abu Nidal’s reported death, Jordanian officials reported the apprehension of an ANO member suspected of planning attacks in Jordan in 2008.
ABU RISH BRIGADES
(also: Ahmad Abu Ar-Rish Brigades) Armed group that was formed in late 1993, mainly made up of "Fatah Hawks," and initially operated under Fatah but has since become more independent. More recently, its members have called themselves Ansar Al-Islam (Supporters of Islam) and declared their aims to be not only the liberation of Palestine but also the exaltation of God and flying the flag of Islam. In the earlier years, the Abu Ar-Rish Brigades were responsible for numerous attacks, mostly directed against Israeli military and settler targets. Since the Israeli disengagement from Gaza, they have carried out attacks and kidnappings in Gaza, often in conjunction with Hamas activists. They take their name from the former PLO militant, Ahmad Abu Ar-Rish, who was mistakenly killed by the Israeli army in 1993 just days after turning himself in to the Israeli authorities and publicly laying down his weapons. Today the group is largely confined to Gaza.
ABU SHUSHA MASSACRE
Assault on the village of Abu Shusha (8 km southeast of Ramle) by units of the Giv’ati Brigade on 14 May 1948, during which some 60-70 residents were killed.
ACCELERATION BENCHMARKS FOR AGREEMENT ON MOVEMENT AND ACCESS
(also: Benchmark Document) A document published on 4 May 2007 to facilitate progress and set a schedule for the commitments made by the Israeli Government and the PA in the 15 November 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access which was facilitated by US and EU representatives. It included removal of roadblocks, opening of passages in the territories, and upgrading of Palestinian forces loyal to President Mahmoud Abbas. It urged Israel to approve requests for weapons, munitions, and equipment required by defense forces loyal to President Abbas. The plan was never implemented and was nullified after the Hamas takeover of Gaza and the subsequent Israeli blockade.
Name of an Italian cruise ship with over 400 passengers and crew, which was hijacked on 7 October 1985 off the Egyptian coast by four members of the Palestinian Liberation Front (PLF), headed by Mohammed Zeidan (Abu Abbas). They demanded the release of 50 Palestinian prisoners from Israeli jails. After a two-day drama, during which disabled American-Jew Leon Klinghoffer was killed, the hijackers surrendered in exchange for a pledge of safe passage. However, US Navy fighters intercepted the Egyptian jet containing the hijackers and forced it to land in Sicily, where they were taken into custody by Italian authorities. Four Palestinians were jailed over the hijack, while the mastermind of the operation, Abu Abbas, was convicted in absentia but never spent time in prison in Italy (he died in US custody after being captured in Iraq in 2004).
Attack on Acre by Israeli troops on 17-18 May 1948, which left at least 100 Arab civilians killed, mostly residents of the new city who refused to move into the portion of the old city that was being used as an Arab ghetto.
ACTIVE ORGANIZATION FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINE (AOLP)
Body established in 1967 by Dr. Issam Sartawi, a prominent and outspoken Palestinian moderate, as a non-combatant medical aid organization. The organization merged temporarily with Fatah in 1968 and rejoined it in 1971, but dissolved following Sartawi’s assassination in April 1983 during a Socialist International meeting in Lisbon, Portugal.
Israeli term for the West Bank and, until the 2005 disengagement, the Gaza Strip, based on the belief that Israel has a legal claim to these territories and that the Fourth Geneva Convention does not apply.
Imprisonment by Israel of Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip without charge or trial for a period of up to six months. Detention is renewable and is authorized by administrative order rather than judicial decree. It is based on the British Mandate 1945 Defense (Emergency) Regulations which were amended and adopted by the Knesset in 1979 to form the Israeli Law on Authority in States of Emergency (Detention).
Temporary 20-member council (10 British, seven Palestinians and three Jews) created by British High Commissioner Sir Herbert Samuel in October 1920 to serve as a legislative body until a formal council dealing with self-government issues was established in August 1922 (Legislative Council or LC). Palestinians rejected the LC and boycotted the elections, arguing that its acceptance would also imply acceptance of Britain’s commitment to the Balfour Declaration and did not include proportional Palestinian representation. After the resignation of seven Palestinian members in May 1923 and other problems the idea was abandoned and a British-only advisory council took over.
National Commission of Inquiry formed by the Israeli government after the Yom Kippur War in November 1973 to examine the circumstances leading up to the war, as well as the war itself. The Commission was headed by Supreme Court President Shimon Agranat and presented its final report on 30 January 1975 (which was published for public view only 20 years later). The report cleared then-Prime Minister Golda Meir and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan of all responsibility for the war's failures, although both resigned due to the public’s demand. However, six high-ranking army officers were held personally responsible for intelligence failures that had made Israel vulnerable to attack and recommended their dismissal or transfer: Chief of Staff David Elazar, Chief of Intelligence Eli Zeira and his deputy, Brig.-Gen. Aryeh Shalev, Head of the Amman Desk for Egypt Lt. Colonel Bandman, Chief of Intelligence for the Southern Command Lt. Colonel Gedelia, and Commander of the southern front Shmuel Gonen. Other recommendations included strengthening Mossad and research department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the appointment of prime ministerial advisors on intelligence and defense.
AGREEMENT ON PREPARATORY TRANSFER OF POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
(also known as Early Empowerment Agreement) Agreement signed by Israel and the PLO at the Erez Crossing on 29 August 1994, which put into effect the next phase (early empowerment) of the Declaration of Principles, providing for the transfer of powers to the PA within the following five specified spheres: (1) Education & Culture (carried out on 29 August 1994); (2) Social Welfare (13-14 November 1994); (3) Tourism (13-14 November 1994); (4) Health (1 December 1994); (5) Taxation (1 December 1994). About a year later, on 27 August 1995, another protocol was signed transferring additional spheres to the PA (see Protocol on Further Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities).
(full: American Israel Public Affairs Committee) Influential Zionist, pro-Israel lobbyist organization in the US set up in the early 1950s. It works unflaggingly to align US diplomatic, economic, military, and foreign policy with Israel's interests. AIPAC has an estimated budget of $65 million and some 100,000 members, and is considered one of the most powerful and effective lobbies on Capitol Hill.
AL AQSA INTIFADA
(also: Second Intifada) Second Palestinian Uprising against the Israeli occupation that began on 28 September 2000 with Likud leader Ariel Sharon’s provocative visit to Al-Aqsa Mosque, which triggered clashes with Palestinians. The outbreak of violence was preceded by the breakdown in peace talks at Camp David in July 2000. Popular protests and stone-throwing quickly spread to the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well to Palestinian communities in Israel, and were met with large-scale repression from Israeli forces, including use of helicopters and tanks, which is seen as the reason why armed Palestinian resistance emerged soon afterwards. Unprecedented violence by Israel including targeted assassinations, military incursions into Area A, and ‘Operation Defensive Shield’ to re-take the West Bank, as well sniper attacks and suicide bombings by Palestinians left over 3,000 Palestinians and nearly 1,000 Israelis killed. There was no decisive event that signaled the end of Intifada, however the Al-Aqsa Intifada lost momentum after the death of Yasser Arafat in 2004 and Israel’s 2005 withdrawal from Gaza.
AL AQSA MARTYRS’ BRIGADES
(Arabic: Al-Kata’eb Shuhada Al-Aqsa) Armed group named after Al-Aqsa Mosque, where the controversial visit of Ariel Sharon on 28 September 2000 sparked the Al-Aqsa Intifada. The Brigades are a secular network of Palestinian activists and militias, were formed in 2000 as an offshoot of Fatah, and became one of the driving forces behind the second Intifada. Although they initially focused on Israeli soldiers and settlers within the West Bank and Gaza Strip, they later resorted to suicide bombings in Israel proper and Qassam rocket attacks from the Gaza Strip. They were added to the US State Department’s list of foreign terrorist organizations in March 2002. In 2007, a large number of wanted Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades members were granted amnesty by an agreement Israel negotiated with the PA, according to which they promised to refrain from terrorism, cut their links with the group, and obey certain movement restrictions. In January 2008 the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades joined with Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad to shoot rockets into Israel from Gaza. Israel retaliated by blockading the Gaza Strip.
AL AQSA MOSQUE COMPOUND
also: Al-Haram Ash-Sharif) Complex located in the southeast corner of the Old City of Jerusalem, covering one-sixth of its area. Al-Aqsa Mosque comprises the entire area within the compound walls (a total area of 144 dunums/144,000 m2) – including all the mosques, prayer rooms, buildings, platforms and open courtyards located above or under the grounds – and exceeds 200 historical monuments pertaining to various Islamic eras. According to Islamic creed and jurisprudence, all these buildings and courtyards enjoy the same degree of sacredness since they are built on Al-Aqsa’s holy grounds. This sacredness is not exclusive to the physical structures allocated for prayer, like the Dome of the Rock or Al-Qibly Mosque, or to the buildings located on the surface of Al-Aqsa’s premises. Thus, a worshiper receives the same reward for praying anywhere within the Mosque including the open courtyards.
(English: The Land) Pan-Arab nationalist movement of Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel founded in 1958 and active until mid-1960s, devoted to the teachings of Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser. It challenged the legitimacy of Israel as well as the traditional leadership of the Palestinian community in Israel, promoting more authentically nationalist politics. Its Central Committee included many young Israeli Arab intellectuals, including Habib Qahwaji, Sabri Jiryies, Saleh Bransi (At-Taybeh), Mansour Kardoush, Fakhri Jdai (Jaffa), Elias Muamer, Abdel Rahman Yahya, Mahmoud As-Sorouji (Akka), Mahmoud Darwish, Fawzi Al-Asmar, Tawfiq Suleiman Odeh, Hanna Musmar (Nazareth), Zaki Al-Bahri (Haifa), Mohammad Mia’ri, and Anis Kardoush. The movement published several newspapers (e.g., Al-Ard, Shatha Al-Ard, Al-Ard Al-Tayibah, Sarkhat Al-Ard, Dam Al-Ard, Rouh Al-Ard) and founded several cultural clubs. Many of the group’s members were jailed or exiled and in 1964, Al-Ard was banned. It tried to field a list of candidates for the 1965 Knesset elections under the name ‘Arab Socialist List’, but was also banned.
AL LAJJUN MASSACRE
Haganah attack on the Jenin district village of Al-Lajjun around 14 April 1948, which left 12 Palestinians killed, 15 others wounded, and many houses blown up.
AL NASSER SALAH AL DIN BRIGADES
Military wing of the PRC in Gaz, initially formed by members of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades.
(Arabic: Harakat Amal) Shi'a political/military resistance movement in Lebanon established in 1974 by Imam Sadr. Its political manifesto, published in August 1974, called for an end of the ethnic-political system in Lebanon.
AL AQSA MOSQUE
The Farthest Mosque) Mosque built on the Al-Aqsa Mosque/ Al-Haram Ash-Sharif compound in the 7th Century (709-714) by the Ummayad Caliph Abdul Malik Bin Marwan. The mosque derives its name from the Qur'anic verse of Prophet Mohammed's nocturnal journey (Isra’ 17:1). It was the first holy site of Islam (before Mecca) towards which Muslims directed their prayers (Qibla), which is why it is also known as Al-Qibly Mosque. The Mosque with its large silver dome (not to be confused with the nearby golden Dome of the Rock Mosque) is considered the third most important Islamic holy site after the mosques in Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia. The entire compound on which Al-Aqsa Mosque is located is also known as Al-Aqsa Mosque (see Al-Aqsa Mosque compound).
Document signed by Muslim, Christian and Jewish religious leaders on 21 January 2002 in Alexandria, Egypt, condemning "killing innocents in the name of God," asserting the signatories’ commitment to work together for a just and lasting peace and committing leaders to use their moral authority in seeking an end to the violence and resumption of the peace process. The declaration also calls on Israeli and Palestinian political leaders to implement the Tenet and Mitchell recommendations.
Document signed at the closing of a meeting of representatives of five Arab states (Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq) and Palestine, which took place in Alexandria, Egypt, from 25 September to 7 October 1944. The goal of the meeting was to form a unified stance regarding the future of the Middle East and non-intervention of foreign powers. The resulting resolutions outlined the attendees’ agreements of cooperation and coordination and led to the formation of the Arab League. A special resolution concerning Palestine confirmed that Palestine constitutes an important part of the Arab World and called for an end to Jewish immigration, the preservation of Arab lands, and the achievement of independence for Palestine.
(plural: aliyot; English: ascent) Term referring to Jewish immigration to Palestine/ Israel.
ALL ISRAEL PLAN
(also: National Water Plan) Proposal regarding the Jordan River watershed publicized by Israel in 1951. It was based on the Lowdermilk Plan and included the draining of the Huleh Lake and swamps, the diversion of the northern Jordan River, and the construction of a carrier to the coastal plain and the Negev.
ALL PALESTINE GOVERNMENT
on 23 September 1948 by the Arab Higher Committee, transforming the temporary civil administration into a government for all Palestine. The government convened its first National Council on 30 September 1948 in Gaza, where Mufti Haj Amin Al-Husseini was elected as President, Ahmed Hilmi Abdel Baqi as Prime Minister, and an 11-member cabinet was named. The Declaration of Independence, issued on 1 October 1948, declared Jerusalem the capital of Palestine and adopted the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt (black and white with green stripes and a red triangle) as the Palestinian flag. The National Council adopted a provisional constitution providing for an interim parliamentary regime with limited abilities on the ground. By mid-October, the Palestine Government was recognized by the Arab on 23 September 1948 by the Arab Higher Committee, transforming the temporary civil administration into a government for all Palestine. The government convened its first National Council on 30 September 1948 in Gaza, where Mufti Haj Amin Al-Husseini was elected as President, Ahmed Hilmi Abdel Baqi as Prime Minister, and an 11-member cabinet was named. The Declaration of Independence, issued on 1 October 1948, declared Jerusalem the capital of Palestine and adopted the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt (black and white with green stripes and a red triangle) as the Palestinian flag. The National Council adopted a provisional constitution providing for an interim parliamentary regime with limited abilities on the ground. By mid-October, the Palestine Government was recognized by the Arab
(also: Jiser Al-Karameh or King Hussein Bridge) Road bridge between the East and West banks of the Jordan River, named after British World War I Commander Sir Edmund Allenby. It was built over an old Ottoman bridge to facilitate the crossing of the British Army into Jordan to fight the Ottomans in 1918. During the 1967 War, thousands of Palestinian refugees fled via the Allenby Bridge before its destruction in the same war. It was rebuilt as a temporary bridge (King Hussein Bridge) in 1968, and is located approximately 6 km east of Jericho.
Today, the Allenby Bridge and both the old and recently built King Hussein Bridges stand side-by-side, marking the border crossing between Jordan and the West Bank, which is under Israeli control.
ALLIANCE OF PALESTINIAN FORCES
see Damascus Ten
One of the first settlement plans put forth by Yigal Allon (Labor) in July 1967 and officially adopted by the Israeli government in June 1968. Its main points included maximization of Israeli security while minimizing the inclusion of Arab inhabitants in Israeli areas, annexation of the strategically important and sparsely populated Jordan Valley, consolidation of the Jerusalem corridor, and cantonization of the rest of the West Bank and Gaza Strip (conforming to the Israeli autonomy plan for Palestinian self-administration).
ALLON PLUS PLAN
Proposal for final borders for Israel and a Palestinian entity in the West Bank and Gaza Strip publicized in May 1997 as an expansion of the 1968 blueprint (see Allon Plan above) and presented by then Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu to the cabinet in June 1997. The plan foresaw the creation of enclaves with restricted autonomy around Palestinian population centers in some 45% of the West Bank, while Israel would retain control of the remaining 55%, including most of the agricultural and natural grazing lands, the eastern slopes the fertile and water-rich Jordan Valley, and border areas. Palestinians rejected the plan, the implementation of which would have involved the destruction of thousands of Palestinian houses.
Arabic: Al-Badil) Electoral alliance for the January 2006 PLC elections consisting of the DFLP, PPP, and FIDA. The alliance was headed by Qais Abdul Karim (Abu Leila), and called for immediate permanent status negotiations with Israel and insisted on Palestinian refugees' right of return. Additionally, the Alternative considered fighting unemployment and poverty a top priority, advocated full equality for women and abolishment of any legislation contradicting the principle of equality. They captured 2.92% of the 2006 vote and won two of the Council's 132 seats. The alliance disbanded in early 2007.
(Abbreviation for the Hebrew Agaf HaModiin – English: the Intelligence Section) Israel’s central Military Intelligence Directorate. Aman was created in 1950 as an independent service within the Israeli army (IDF), responsible for intelligence evaluation for security policy, dissemination of intelligence to army and governmental bodies, training and operation of field security, operation of military censorship, drawing maps, and development of 'special measures' for intelligence work as well as of an intelligence doctrine in the realms of research, collection, and field security. Since 2014, Aman is headed by Herzi Halevi.
Settlement movement established by the Gush Emunim in 1978. It is considered the main engine behind settlement construction in the OPT and campaigns to encourage Jews and Israelis to move to settlements, claiming that its presence is protecting the conditions necessary for a Jewish State. In Spring of 2007 Amana launched a campaign for the first time in the US to convince American Jews to buy homes in the West Bank either for their own use or to rent them at cost to settlers. More recently, the organization made headlines for its intention to build its new headquarters in the heart of the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood in East Jerusalem.
AMERICAN JEWISH JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE (JDC)
The US Jewry's overseas relief and rehabilitation agency, which was founded in 1914, initially to assist Palestinian Jews caught in the throes of World War I and living under Ottoman rule. Since then the JDC has aided millions of Jews in more than 85 countries, providing assistance for Holocaust survivors and Jewish people in need or at risk, as well as responding to current events and crises such as earthquakes and tsunamis.
ANGLO AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY
Joint commission proposed by British Prime Minister Attlee in response to US President Truman's pleas to admit more displaced Jews to Palestine. The resulting Anglo-American Committee was appointed in November 1945 to associate the US with responsibility for the Palestine Question and to examine continued Jewish immigration into Palestine. It comprised six Americans, chaired by Judge ‘Texas Joe’ Hutcheson and six British, headed by Sir John Singleton. The committee arrived in March 1946 in Palestine, published its first report in April, recommending a UN trusteeship, and its final report on 1 May 1946, recommending increased Jewish immigration (some 150,000 Jews) into Palestine, the cessation of the 1940 Land Transfer Regulations, and adoption of a trusteeship for Palestine. The Arab League rejected the proposal as did the British government
Peace conference held on 27 November 2007 in Annapolis, Maryland, to set up a timetable for future negotiations on final status issues along the guidelines of the 2002 "road map" for peace. The conference, organized by then US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, was attended by President Abbas, Prime Minister Olmert, representatives from over 30 nations, the UN Security Council, and the Middle East Quartet. It resulted in a draft resolution being presented by the US to the UN Security Council, which was immediately withdrawn after Israeli objections. A follow up conference of the Quartet took place in Sharm Esh-Sheikh on 9 November 2008.
ANNEXATION, ANNEXED TERRITORIES
Incorporation of territory into another geo-political entity such as a country, state, county, or city. International Law forbids the annexation of territory gained through war as well as the mass movement of people out of or into occupied territory. Following the War of 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and some 28 surrounding villages (avoiding populated Palestinian areas such as Ar-Ram, Qalandia and Abu Dis/Al-Izzariyya) thereby extending the borders of Jerusalem by some 70 km2 (added to the 38 km2 of West Jerusalem at the time). The new municipal boundaries, now embracing 108 km2 (28% of which is the West Bank), were designed to secure geographic integrity and a demographic Jewish majority in both parts of the city. On 28 June 1967, the Knesset amended the Law of 1950, which proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's capital, to illegally extend Israeli jurisdiction to the annexed part of the city. In 1981, Israel annexed Syria’s Golan Heights. Both annexations are considered illegal under UN resolutions.
The term “Semitic” refers to a group of languages originating in the West Asia, including the Middle East, to which Hebrew and Arabic belong, while “Semites” refers to the many racial, ethnic and cultural groups speaking one of those languages, including Canaanites, Arabs, Hebrews, and others. Anti-Semitism, though, is not opposition to a Semitic language or to Semitic peoples, but specifically to Jews as a race as used by Nazi-Germany to give a “scientific” name to their hatred of Jews. The European concept of Anti-Semitism was brought to the Middle East with the various waves of Jewish immigration from Europe. It was injected into the culture of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict after the Palestinian Nakba of 1948. However, neither Palestinians nor Arabs in general (whether Muslims or Christians) ever had problems with Jews as an "ethnie" or Judaism as a religion, considering Jews “people of the book” (i.e., “children of Abraham”, part of the family of monotheistic faiths), with whom even inter-marriage is allowed and practiced to this very day. Today, the charge of Anti-Semitism is primarily used to try to silence all unfavorable discussion of Israel in general, and all criticism of its governments’ practices in violation of human rights and international law in particular. Anti-Semitism should not be confused with anti-Zionism or anti-Israeli government policy, which would confuse politics with religion/ethnicity.
ANTI TERROR(ISM) LAW
ANTI BOYCOTT LAW
Israeli law prohibiting the promotion of or call for academic, economic or cultural boycotts of Israeli citizens and organizations and/or against Israeli institutions or even Israeli settlements. Anyone who calls for such boycotts (namely the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement) can face a civil lawsuit. The law was initiated in 2010 by MKs from Likud, Shas, Yisrael Beiteinu, United Torah Judaism and the National Union, and approved in the Knesset on 11 July 2011. It was partially struck down when the Israeli High Court ruled in April 2015 that its Section 2c, which permitted the imposition of compensation payments even if no damages were proven, was unconstitutional. The first lawsuit filed under the law was in 2018 by the Israeli civil rights group Shurat HaDin on behalf of three Israeli teenagers who had bought tickets for a show by singer Lorde that was cancelled after a call to boycott. Claiming "emotional damages," the Jerusalem Magistrate's Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs and ordered in October 2018 two New Zealand activists to pay NIS 45,000 in damages to the plaintiffs' "artistic welfare" and court fees.
Afrikaans word for ‘apartness’, originally used to describe the system of racial discrimination that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, when the white minority ruled over the black majority. The term is also used in international law to describe a category of regime, defined in the UN International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (1973), as “inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them” (Article II). The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002) lists apartheid under Crimes against Humanity as “inhumane acts ... committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime” (Article 7.2.h). Today, Israel is increasingly accused of using policies consistent with an apartheid regime, because the system it has instituted against the Palestinians in the OPT meets the aforementioned definitions in that it treats Jews and Palestinians differently in almost every aspect of life, maintains separate discriminatory legal regimes, and acts in violation of international law (e.g., by denying Palestinians their right to freedom of movement and residence, forcibly transferring Palestinians to make way for Israeli settlements, depriving Palestinians of fundamental identity-based human rights, etc).
Three-way summit held at the Royal Palace in Aqaba, Jordan, on 4 June 2003 between US President Bush, Israeli Prime Minister Sharon, and Palestinian Prime Minister Abbas to discuss the "road map" for peace. At the end of the summit, Prime Minister Abbas vowed an end to terrorism and the militarization of the Intifada, Prime Minister Sharon promised the immediate dismantlement of settlement outposts and reiterated his commitment to a two-state solution, and President Bush stressed his commitment to "Israel's security as a vibrant Jewish state" and to "freedom and statehood for the Palestinian people.”
Economic boycott of Israel (or the Yishuv, prior to the formation of the state) formally declared by the Arab League Council on 2 December 1945 (Resolution 16). The objective has been to isolate Israel from its neighbors and the international community, as well as to deny it trade that might be used to augment its military and economic strength. The 'primary' boycott prohibits direct trade between Israel and the Arab nations, the 'secondary' boycott is directed at companies that do business with Israel, and the 'tertiary' boycott involves blacklisting firms that trade with other companies that do business with Israel. The Arab League does not enforce the boycott and boycott regulations are not binding on member states, although it recommends that member countries demand certificates of origin on all goods acquired from suppliers to ensure that such goods meet all aspects of the boycott. The boycott was dealt several major blows when Egypt (1979), the Palestinian Authority (1993), and Jordan (1994) signed peace treaties or agreements that formally ended the boycott; other states do not enforce it or only sporadically. Since 1951, the boycott is administered by the Damascus-based Central Boycott Office.
(Arabic: Nadi Al-Arabi) One of two main national movements (the other being Muntada Al-Adabi), which emerged during Palestine’s unity with Syria (1918-20). Membership was based on ideology, in contrast to the traditional organization around family heads and notables, and consisted largely of young people. The interests of the two national movements were almost identical, which led to cooperation between them in all major political events, however, both disappeared after 1921. The Arab Club was set up in Damascus in 1918 by Palestinians from Nablus as an organization engaged in social and cultural activities and its members were drawn mainly from the Al-Husseini family and their supporters. The president of the Arab Club was Haj Amin Al-Husseini and its political goals were unity with Syria under King Faisal I and resistance to Zionism. A body with the same name emerged in Damascus, headed by Abdul Qader Al-Muthaffar, and connected with the Jerusalem Arab Club. This new Arab Club became the main nationalist organization in Syria. The Arab Club ceased functioning with the demise of the Syrian Kingdom at the hands of the French in 1920.
Seven congresses, initially organized by the Muslim-Christian Association, were held between 1919 and 1928 throughout Palestine to formulate Palestinian national demands. The First Congress (Jerusalem, 1919), rejected the Balfour Declaration and formulated a program to be presented at the Paris Conference. The Second Congress (Jerusalem, May 1920) protested confirmation of the Palestine Mandate for Britain and was actually forbidden by the British authorities. The Third Congress (Haifa, December 1920) called for the establishment of a national government and elected the Arab Executive Committee to direct and oversee the work of the Palestinian national movement. The Fourth Congress (Jerusalem, June 1921), led by Musa Qassem Al-Husseini, elected the first Palestinian Delegation to London which presented the Palestinian case against Jewish immigration to Palestine to the British government (a mission that ended unsuccessfully). The Fifth Congress (Nablus, 1922) decided to boycott the Legislative Council elections planned by the British and to establish an information office in London. The Sixth Congress (Jaffa, 1923) reiterated the boycott of Legislative Council elections and the rejection of the Anglo-Hijazi Treaty (for a British-supported Arab confederation of Iraq, the Hijaz, and Transjordan). The Seventh Congress (Jerusalem, 1928) called for the establishment of a representative government.
ARAB EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (AEC)
Body set up at the Third National Congress in Haifa in December 1920 to act as representative and defender of the Palestinian cause. The platform of the Haifa congress set out the position that Palestine was an autonomous Arab entity and totally rejected any rights of the Jews to Palestine. Musa Qassem (Pasha) Al-Husseini was elected Chairman. The committee led the Palestinian political movement until the mid-1930s, held seven congresses, and sent several delegations to Europe, mainly London, to present the Palestinian case against Jewish immigration. It was never formally recognized by the British and was dissolved in 1934.
ARAB HIGHER COMMITTEE (AHC)
Body established in 1936, during the Arab Revolt, as a representative umbrella comprised of the heads of all Palestinian political parties and headed by the Grand Mufti, Haj Amin Al-Husseini. The committee was banned by the British shortly after its establishment in 1937 and its leading members were arrested, exiled, and imprisoned for their vocal opposition to the Mandate and to Zionist immigration and land acquisition. In October 1937, Al-Husseini fled to Lebanon, where he reconstituted the committee under his domination. The Arab Higher Committee proclaimed the independence of Palestine on 1 October 1948 and established the All-Palestine Government. The Committee continued to exist and had a representative at the UN General Assembly until the formation of the PLO in 1964.
see Israeli Arabs
Voluntary umbrella organization established on 22 March 1945 (see Alexandria Protocol) by the then independent Arab states (Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Yemen) as a forum for concerted action on major issues its members face. Today the Arab League is comprised of 22 members (but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian civil war/revolution) and represents some 300 million people. In 1964, it decided to establish the PLO “to organize the Palestinian people enabling them to play their role in the liberation of their country and to achieve self-determination”, and at the 7th summit meeting in Rabat in October 1974, it recognized the PLO as the “sole representative of the Palestinian people”. In 1976, the PLO was admitted as a full member, and since 1989 it has been a member as "the State of Palestine". At its March 2002 summit, the Arab League members unanimously endorsed the Saudi peace initiative and in its March 2007 summit it was re-endorsed by all except Hamas delegate Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh, who abstained. Current Secretary-General of the Arab League is Ahmed Aboul Gheith (since 2016).
(Arabic: Al-Jeish Al-‘Arabi) Armed forces of Transjordan (since 1921), and then subsequently the regular army of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (since 1949). The Legion was formed in 1921 by British Lt. Colonel Frederick Gerard Peake as a police force to keep order among Transjordanian tribes and to guard the Jerusalem-Amman Road. From 1939-56 the Arab Legion was commanded by British officer John Bagot Glubb (Glubb Pasha), who made it the best trained Arab army in the world. The Arab Legion played an important role against the Zionist forces in the War of 1948, when it conquered the Old City of Jerusalem and secured the West Bank for Jordan. On 1 March 1956, the Legion was renamed as the Arab Army (today Jordanian Armed Forces).
ARAB LIBERATION ARMY
(Arabic: Jesh Al-Inqadh; English: Army of Salvation) Arab volunteer military force formed in late 1947, based on an Arab League decision, to fight against the UN Partition Plan and defeat Zionism. It was led by former Lebanese Ottoman army officer Fawzi Al-Qawuqji and Adib Shishakli, who later became President of Syria. Only a small proportion of the army ever entered Palestine, mainly the northern and central regions, and its mission was unsuccessful. The Arab Liberation Army was officially disbanded in March 1949.
ARAB LIBERATION FRONT (ALF)
(Arabic: Jabhat At-Tahrir Al-‘Arabiyya) Iraqi-sponsored, pan-Arab, and leftist military PLO faction, founded as a guerrilla group in 1969 by Iraqi Ba’athists to influence the Palestinian resistance movement. It was originally led by Zeid Heidar, and is now headed by Rakad Salem. The ALF's ideology is similar to As-Saiqa's, but it carried out fewer operations. The ALF played a substantial role within the Rejectionist Front in the 1970s and followed Iraqi government policy on all matters. It opposed the Oslo Accords and insists on the liberation of all of Palestine. The organization is based in Baghdad, where it was the main faction active in Iraq's small Palestinian population, while it was a very minor group in other Palestinian communities. It is currently represented in the PLO Executive Committee by Mahmoud Ismael. It maintains an office in Ramallah and publishes the monthly journal Sawt Al-Jamahir (Voice of the Masses). ALF has not been involved in armed attacks on Israel since at least the early 1990s, and is no longer believed to possess any significant military capabilities.
ARAB NATIONALIST MOVEMENT (ANM)
(Arabic: Haraket Al-Qawmiyun Al-Arab) Political movement, the core of which was formed in Beirut in 1948 by Arab Muslim and Christian intellectuals. The ANM was more formally created in Jordan in 1952 by George Habash and Wadi Haddad (Palestine), Ahmad Al-Khatib (Kuwait), and Hani Al-Hindi (Syria), and soon had branches throughout the Arab world. The initiators of the movement in the West Bank were two physicians, Dr. Salah Anabtawi from Nablus and Dr. Subhi Ghosheh from Jerusalem. After the mid-1950s, the ANM unquestioningly tied its fate to Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser, who effectively ran it, and the movement was strongest in the late 1950s and early 1960s. After 1967, it publicly abandoned 'Nasserism' and instead espoused Marxist-Leninist principles. The ANM called for pan-Arabism and Marxism, aimed at unifying the Arab world to confront Israel, and was a forerunner of the PFLP.
(also: Palestine Arab Party; Arabic: Al-Hizb Al-Arabi Al-Filastini) Political party established by the Husseini clan and their supporters (Al-Majlisyoun) in March 1935, partly to counter the rival Nashashibi clan’s National Defense Party. It was first headed by Jamal Al-Husseini and was strongly backed by the Mufti Al-Hajj Amin. The Arab Party struggled against the Balfour Declaration, Jewish immigration, the British Mandate, and land sales to Jews, and called for immediate and complete Palestinian independence. The party became nearly irrelevant following the 1936 Arab Revolt, when the British banned political organizing and exiled many of the party’s leaders.
ARAB PEACE INITIATIVE
Proposal, based on the 2002 Saudi peace initiative and adopted at the March 2007 Arab League summit in Riyadh, for an end to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians and normalization of relations between Israel and the Arab world. It called for an Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied since 1967, Israel’s acceptance of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital, and a “just settlement” to the issue of Palestinian refugees. While the Palestinians endorsed the initiative, Israel mainly rejected it, although some political leaders expressing reserved support for certain aspects of the plan. Other proposals have since been floated to reintroduce and update the initiative.
ARAB REVOLT (1916-1920)
Arab uprising that began June 1916 against the Ottoman Empire, triggered by the British promise (see Hussein-MacMahon Correspondence) to create a greater Arab Kingdom (Hijaz, Syria and Iraq), if the people of the region revolted against Istanbul. The Arab Revolt left its marks, including the colors of its flag, black, green, white, and red (used today by Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Palestine, and the Ba’ath Party). In the event, the UK and France ended up dividing the Arab region under the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
ARAB REVOLUTIONARY BRIGADES
ARAB SECRET SOCIETIES
Societies Political-literary clubs and other patriotic organizations formed in the years 1900-1914, mainly in Constantinople, but with branches in Beirut, Damascus, and other Arab cities. Prominent secret societies were Al-Qahtaniya and Al-Fatat, seeking Arab independence. Following the Arab Revolt of 1916, they merged with the emerging Arab national movements.
ARAB SUQRIR MASSACRE
Israeli attack on the village of Arab Suqrir on 29 August 1948 as part of Israel’s 'Cleansing Campaign' (“Mitzva Nikayon”) in the area currently known as Ashdod, in which at least 10 Palestinian farmers were murdered.
Tomb built in the Muqata'a complex in Ramallah over the burial place of PLO Chairman and PA President Yasser Arafat, who died on 11 November 2004 in Paris. The burial site is considered temporary until his remains can be taken to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. The mausoleum has become one of Palestine's more than 2,000 mazara’at (shrines), dedicated to deceased persons of political, historical, or religious significance. The new complex, which was inaugurated in November 2007 on the 3rd anniversary of Yasser Arafat's death, also includes a mosque and a museum.
Region/geographic name for the area that stretches between the Dead Sea in the North and the Red Sea (Aqaba and Eilat) in the South. However, the modern use of the term is restricted to this southern section alone. It is part of the Syrian-African Rift and includes both Israeli and Jordanian territories with varying levels and densities of agricultural and urban settlements on both sides of the border.
Region/geographic name for the area that stretches between the Dead Sea in the North and the Red Sea (Aqaba and Eilat) in the South. However, the modern use of the term is restricted to this southern section alone. It is part of the Syrian-African Rift and includes both Israeli and Jordanian territories with varying levels and densities of agricultural and urban settlements on both sides of the border.
AREA A, B, C
Jurisdictional divisions created in the West Bank in 1995, under the Oslo II Agreement. Area A, initially being the urban centers only, came under PA administrative and internal security responsibility and eventually comprised 17.2% of the West Bank. Area B, being the built-up areas of the remaining principal villages and eventually 23.8% of the West Bank, remained under Israeli military occupation, but the PA became responsible for services and civilian administration. Area C, eventually being 59% of the West Bank, remained under exclusive Israeli civil and military administration. After late 2001, Israeli military incursions and reoccupations eroded the currency of the jurisdictional divisions of Areas A, B, and C. While one of the aims of the Oslo Accords was to eventually move Area B and Area C away from Israeli to Palestinian control (Area A), this has not been the case. Today, Areas A and B are not contiguous territory but consist of over 200 enclaves. Area C - where Israel retains full control - covers roughly 60% of the West Bank; 70% of this (about 44% of the West Bank) is classified as settlement areas, firing zones, or nature reserves - off limits to Palestinians, for whose development less than 1% of Area C is designated. Until this day, Israel retained overall security responsibility for all areas, including the right of ‘hot pursuit’ into area A. On 31 July 2019, PA Prime Minister Shtayyeh stated that the classification of land into Areas A, B and C was no longer valid due to Israel’s violations of the Oslo Accords, and on 25 August, the PA Ministry of Local Government issued a directive instructing all local authorities to expand their master plans on the natural basins (i.e. across the A/B/C divide).
Series of separate ceasefire agreements signed between Israel and Egypt (24 February 1949), Lebanon (23 March), Jordan (3 April), and Syria (20 July in 1949), following the 1948 War. No separate agreement was signed with Iraq. The agreement was meant to end hostilities and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The agreements were mostly negotiated on the Greek island of Rhodes under the auspices of the UN (see also Rhodes Talks).
ARMY OF ISLAM
(Arabic: Jesh Al-Islam) Small, armed Islamist group that operates in Gaza and is led by Mumtaz Dughmush, who originates from a powerful clan in Gaza. The group split from the Popular Resistance Committees, and has since been shunned by both Hamas and Fatah. The Army of Islam seeks liberation of Palestine and an Islamic state and is said to be influenced by Al-Qaeda. The group was involved in the capture and holding of BBC correspondent Alan Johnston, who was later released, and Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit. In 2010, senior Army of Islam leader Mohammad Namnam was assassinated in a targeted killing when the car he was driving in Gaza City was hit by a missile fired from an Israeli military helicop ter. The group is linked to numerous attacks in Israel and Egypt and was designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the US and the UAE in May 2011.
ARMY OF THE HOLY STRUGGLE or WAR
(Arabic: Jesh Al-Jihad Al-Muqaddas) Local Palestinian military organization created in the 1940s to fight Zionism. The organization was headquartered in Birzeit and led by the legendary leader Abdul Qader Al-Husseini until his death in combat at Qastel in April 1948, after which the army’s commandership went to Emil Ghouri. The Army of the Holy Struggle was disbanded and integrated into the Transjordanian army in 1949.
Jews who derive from northern and eastern Europe, primarily from regions in modern day Germany, Poland, and Russia. Ashkenazi Jews constitute around 50% of Israel's Jewish population. Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel is since 2013 David Lau.
(See also Sephardim).
Arabic name for the Mount of Olives neighborhood in Arab East Jerusalem.
(English: Crown of the Priests) Extremist Jewish institution whose goal is to Judaize the Christian and Muslim Quarters of the Old City, as well as East Jerusalem, by taking over Palestinian property and fostering settlement construction. The group is funded by Jewish-American businessman Irving Moskowitz. Ateret Cohanim supports numerous Jewish families living in the aforementioned neighborhoods, and is involved in the settlement building at Jabal Mukabber, Ras Al-Amud, Abu Dis, and Silwan. The organization has been involved in a number of legal disputes such as claiming ownership to houses despite court ruling.
Scheme proposed by former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in a speech to the Knesset in December 1977, calling for an end to the military occupation of “Judea, Samaria [the West Bank], and Gaza,” and the establishment of a democratically elected 11-member Palestinian “administrative council” which would have responsibility for civil matters (e.g. education, health, industry, agriculture, construction, transportation, commerce, and labor), while Israel would maintain control of security and public order. Palestinians could accept either Israeli or Jordanian citizenship. Palestinians rejected the plan as it did not go beyond offering some kind of administrative autonomy for the Palestinians in the OPT.
Group of nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan) which were opposed to the Allies during World War II and formed a military alliance on the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin in September 1940. Other countries (e.g., Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, and Slovakia) joined the Axis Powers later, but membership was fluid and World War II ended with their total defeat.
AYALON NUSSEIBEH PLAN
BAB AL KARAMEH
Tent village established by Palestinian activists on 18 January 2013 to protest Israel's land confiscation and settlement building in the area of Beit Iksa northwest of Jerusalem. The Bab Al-Karameh (Gate of Dignity) encampment was inspired by the erection of the Bab Al-Shams protest village a week earlier and faced the same fate: after three days, Israeli troops demolished the tents and evacuated the activists.
BAB AR RAHMEH
(English: Gate of Mercy) (1.) (also known as Golden Gate) Name for an ancient historical gate carved into Al-Aqsa’s eastern wall probably during the Umayyad era, and the building attached to it. The gate consists of two doors, one to the south (Ar-Rahma – “The Mercy”) and one to the north (At-Tawbah – “The Repentance”) and was named after the cemetery located in front of it. It is believed that the Islamic scholar Imam Al-Ghazzali wrote his famous book The Revival of Religious Sciences while staying in a room located in the structure above the gate, where the Islamic Heritage Committee had the headquarters of its advocacy activities from 1992 until it was dissolved by the Israeli occupation authorities in 2003. Since then, the building has been closed on the basis of an Israeli order, which is renewed periodically. The gate itself was shut by Saladin after conquering Jerusalem to protect the city from future raids, and remains closed to the present day. In February 2019, a number of events caused some controversy and clashes between Israeli forces and Palestinians praying in the area. (2.) Name of one of the oldest Islamic cemeteries in Jerusalem, located in front of Bab Ar-Rahmeh, which contains the remnants of Prophet Mohammad’s (PBUH) companions Ash-Shadad bin Aws and Obada bin As-Samet. In recent years, the cemetery has been subjected to a series of Israeli violations, including the uprooting of trees, digging up of graves, and fencing to prevent new burials. These activities are aimed at seizing the cemetery under the pretext that it is a declared antiquities site and part of the “Jerusalem Walls” national park, and that digging and burial therefore constitute damage to antiquities.
BAB ASH SHAMS
(English: Gate of the Sun) Temporary tent camp erected on private Palestinian land in the E1 area by some 250 Palestinian and foreign activists on 11 January 2013, to establish ‘facts on the ground’ with the aim to eventually turn the site into a village called Bab Al-Shams (inspired by the renowned book by Palestinian-Lebanese novelist Elias Khoury). The camp was demolished within 48 hours by Israeli police, who evicted the activists and arrested about 100 of them. Other protest camps were founded in its wake.
BACK TO BACK SYSTEM
Trade and truck loading system that is part of Israel’s closure regime anywhere in the West Bank where roadblocks hinder the transportation of goods. Due to existing movement restrictions, export goods must be offloaded, then loaded onto new vehicles at the other side of a roadblock. In addition to creating delays and uncertainties, it significantly raises costs of trade and often results in substantial damage to goods due to the unloading-reloading procedure.
Monotheistic religion founded in Persia in 1862 by Mirza Hussein Ali 'Baha’ullah' (Glory of God) that grew out of Babism, a sectarian deviation of Shi’ite Islam. The Baha'í faith’s central theme is that humanity is one single race and that the day has come for its unification in one global society. Its principles stress the unity of all religions, world peace, and universal education. At times, the Baha’i faith and community were banned and persecuted in Persia and other Islamic countries. Main holy places are the Tomb of the Bab in Haifa and the Tomb of the Baha’ullah (the holiest spot on earth in the Baha'i religion, to which they turn in prayer each day) in Bahj, near Acre.
BAKER FIVE POINT FRAMEWORK
Five ‘suggested points’ for Palestinian-Israeli talks formulated by US Secretary of State James Baker and formally released by the US State Department on 6 December 1989. The Palestinians viewed them as positive but expressed reservations, stressing the need of further development of a role for the PLO and a desire to have the framework become part of a comprehensive package leading to an independent state. The five points were as follows: (1) The US understands that Egypt and Israel have been working hard and that there is now agreement that an Israeli delegation will conduct a dialogue with a Palestinian delegation in Cairo. (2) The US understands that Egypt cannot be a substitute for the Palestinians in that dialogue and that Egypt will also consult with the Palestinians on all aspects of the dialogue. Egypt will also consult with Israel and the US on this matter. (3) The US understands that Israel will attend the dialogue after a satisfactory list of Palestinians has been worked out. Israel will also consult with Egypt and the US on this matter. (4) The US understands that the government of Israel will come to the dialogue on the basis of the Israeli government initiative of 14 May. The US further understands that the elections and negotiations will be in accordance with the Israeli initiative. The US understands, therefore, that the Palestinians will be free to raise issues that relate to their opinion on how to make elections and negotiations succeed. (5) In order to facilitate the process, the US proposes that the foreign ministers of Israel, Egypt and the US meet in Washington within two weeks.
BAKER HAMILTON REPORT
(Hebrew acronym for: Brit Le'umit Demokratit, English: National Democratic Assembly; Arabic: Al-Tajamu' Al-Watani Al-Dimuqrati) Arab national-liberal party, established by Azmi Bishara towards the 1996 elections and led by him until his resignation in April 2007 over charges of treason and espionage, laid against him by Israeli security services. Since then led by Jamal Zahalka, Balad seeks to transform Israel from a “state of the Jews" to a "democratic state with equality for all of its citizens." The party supports the creation of two states based on pre-1967 borders and the right of return for refugees. In January 2015, Balad, which since its inception has been aligned with the Ta’al faction of Ahmed Tibi, signed an agreement with the other three Arab-dominated parties, Hadash, the United Arab List and Ta'al, to form the ’Joint List’ after the Knesset raised the electoral threshold from 2% to 3.25%. in the run-up to the April 2019 elections, the Joint List disbanded and Balad decided to join forces with Ra’am (the United Arab List), mainly in order to minimize the risk of failing to pass the electoral threshold. Ahead of the September 2019 elections, Balad reestablished the alliance with the Joint List. After the large turnout of Joint List voters in the election, the Joint List's three Balad MKs abstained from endorsing Gantz as the rest of the Joint List had, putting Gantz behind incumbent PM Netanyahu in total recommendations.
BALAD ASH-SHEIKH MASSACRE
Attack on 31 December 1947-1 January 1948 in which the Palmach, an arm of the Haganah, attacked the Palestinian village of Balad Ash-Sheikh near Haifa at night. The attack came in retaliation for the killing of Jews during the Haifa Oil Refinery massacre the day before. According to Israeli historian Benny Morris, the Jewish forces had orders to kill “maximum adult males.” Morris also reports that the Haganah General Staff recorded between 21 and 70 residents were killed and 21 injured (including at least two women and five children) when the Palmach fired into and blew up houses, pulling out adult males and shooting them. Following the raids, many families fled the two villages to Nablus, Jenin and Acre. Jewish committees after the massacre noted that many of the Arab workers had not participated in the attack at the refinery and a few had actually had protected Jews but the raids on Balad Ash-Sheikh and Hawassa were conducted indiscriminately.
Letter sent on 2 November 1917 by British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Lionel Walter de Rothschild of the British-Jewish community, pledging British support for “the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine.” It was henceforth referred to as an official British statement and was included word for word in the British Mandate document ratified by the League of Nations in 1922. The declaration was controversial as it was made by a European power about a territory not in its possession and contradicted two previous British promises, the 1915 Hussein-McMahon correspondence and the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement (see both below).
Originally refers to separate homeland for black South Africans set up by the South African Apartheid regime. The term is increasingly used in the Palestinian narrative to describe the areas isolated by Israel's settlements, the Separation Barrier, by-pass roads, and road closures in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It encompasses the logic that the 1993 Oslo Accords granted Palestinians "autonomy" while assimilating or even subjugating them in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Clandestine Jewish organization named after Simeon Bar Giora, one of the leaders of the Jewish Revolt against the Romans. It was formed in Jaffa in 1907 to defend the right to work and guard Jewish settlements as well as to develop new ones. It was responsible for the protection of Sejera (Ilaniyah) and Mesha (Kfar Tavor), before merging with a new defense body, Hashomer, in 1909.
BAR LEV LINE
Defense system made up of a series of 30 strongholds along the east side of the Suez Canal, which was named after and devised by Chaim Bar Lev, Israeli chief of staff from 1968-72, to block attacks from Egypt after 1967. Egypt's troops overran these fortifications in the 1973 Yom Kippur War but the Israeli forces quickly regained the upper hand.
Political agreement adopted at the Euro-Mediterranean conference on 27-28 November 1995 in Barcelona by the Foreign Ministries of the 15 EU member states, 11 Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey), and the Palestinian Authority, marking the first attempt in modern history to create durable and strong bonds between the shores of the Mediterranean. The declaration intended to establish a comprehensive Euro-Mediterranean partnership in order to turn the Mediterranean into a common area of stability, peace, and prosperity through the reinforcement of political dialogue and security, an economic and financial partnership, as well as a social, cultural and human partnership.
Zionist platform formulated and adopted at the First Zionist Congress (World Zionist Organization) convened in Basel, Switzerland in 1897, by Theodor Herzl. The program declared the goals of Zionism, stating that it "strives to create for the Jewish people a home in Eretz-Israel [Palestine] secured by Public Law."
Israeli legislation dealing with the formation and role of the principal state's institutions, relationships between the state's authorities, and civil rights. These laws have been used in lieu of a formal constitution, although the laws do not cover all constitutional issues. Basic laws have been issued on various subjects, including: The Knesset (1958), The People's Lands (1960), The President of the State (1964), The Government (1968), The State Economy (1975), The Army (1976), Jerusalem, the Capital of Israel (1980), The Judiciary (1984), The State Comptroller (1988), Human Dignity and Liberty (1992), The Government (1992), Freedom of Occupation (1992 and 1994), The Government (2001), and controversially, Israel as the Nation State of the Jewish People (2019). Once all basic laws are enacted, they are supposed to become – with an introduction and several general rulings – the constitution of the State of Israel.
BATN AL HAWA
Section of the Silwan neighborhood located on the steep slope south of the Old City, where over 700 Palestinians are threatened with displacement to the advantage of Jewish settlers. In November 2018, the Israeli High Court of Justice rejected the residents’ appeal and ruled in favor of the Ateret Cohanim settler association, thus paving the way for their eviction.
BATTLE OF GAZA
Palestinian factional fighting in June 2007, which left over 100 people dead and resulted in Hamas’s seizure of control in Gaza. The week-long battle was a climax in the conflict between the two movements that had escalated following the 2006 parliamentary elections, in which Hamas had gained the majority of seats in the PLC. Following the takeover, President Abbas dissolved the Hamas-led unity government and declared a state of emergency, resulting in the de facto division of the Palestinian territories into two entities, the PA-governed West Bank and the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip.
BATTLE OF JENIN
Israeli invasion into Jenin refugee camp in the West Bank during 1-11 April 2002 as part of ‘Operation Defensive Shield’ during the Second Intifada. Claimed by Israel as a defensive measure against suspected militants, Palestinians considered the assault as collective punishment and a show of Israel’s military might. There were allegations of a massacre, with over 50 Palestinians killed (according to Human Rights Watch in some cases constituting war crimes). While the army blocked humanitarian and medical assistance to the residents, a large section of Jenin refugee camp was razed to the ground (according to HRW, 35% of the camp) leaving 3,000 Palestinians homeless. The invasion was met with fierce Palestinian resistance and left over 20 soldiers dead.
BATTLE OF KARAMEH
Legendary battle that took place on 21 March 1968 at Karameh, Jordan, in which Jordanian and PLO forces repulsed an Israeli raid (codenamed Operation ‘Inferno’) on the town, which served as a base for PLO/Fatah guerillas, as well as on the nearby village of Safi. The raid was in reprisal for a series of attacks by the Palestinian guerillas against Israel. After the battle, the PLO's strength began to grow, which eventually led to the 1970 Black September in Jordan (see below). The partial defeat inflicted on the Israeli troops at Karameh (although most of the Karameh camp was destroyed and hundreds of prisoners were taken) was the political and military turning point in Palestinian resistance, as it restored the dignity and self-esteem of the Palestinians and of the Arab World at large, especially after the decisive loss of the 1967 June War. Palestinians still mark its anniversary.
English: Renaissance or rebirth) Pan-Arab socialist party with branches in several Arab countries, most notably Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. The movement was created in Damascus in the 1940s by Michel Aflak and Salah Eddin Bitar and became known as Ba’ath Arab Socialist Party in 1953. The core of the Ba’ath doctrine is Arab unity and anti-imperialism. A branch of the Ba’ath Arab Party was founded in Ramallah in 1952 by Bahjat Abu Gharbiyyeh, Abdullah Rimawi, and Abdullah Nawas. The party was commonly associated with Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq (1979-2003) and Syria under Hafez Al-Assad (1971-2000), where the ruling parties retained the name, although both states moved away from Ba'athist principles.
BEACH (REFUGEE) CAMP AGREEMENT
(also: Beach Camp Reconciliation Agreement) Accord on Palestinian unity negotiated by Fatah and Hamas officials without outside meditation, which was named after a refugee camp in the Gaza Strip where it was finally achieved (at the home of the Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Haniya) on 23 April 2014. The deal, which included a technocratic government under President Abbas’ leadership, plans to restructure the security sector, and elections within a six-month frame, referred sensitive issues (such as incorporating Hamas and the Islamic Jihad to the PLO) to a specialized committee. The breakthrough was said to have been reached because both sides needed an agreement to escape from crises each one faced: Hamas was unpopular at home, short of funding and boxed in by Egypt and Israel, and Fatah suffered from failed efforts to revive the stalled US-run peace process while facing rising economic woes in the West Bank. Soon after the signing of the agreement, President Abbas swore in a new government on 2 June 2014, headed by Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah. However, due to the Israeli assault on Gaza that summer, no further steps were taken.
BEILIN EITAN AGREEMENT
(full: National Agreement Regarding the Negotiations on the Permanent Settlement with the Palestinians) Agreement regarding future negotiations with the Palestinians reached between Labor and Likud MKs, headed by Yossi Beilin of Labor and Michael Eitan of Likud (with the blessing of then Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu) in 1997 (publicized on 26 January 1997). It foresaw the establishment of a demilitarized Palestinian entity in the OPT, the area of which was yet to be negotiated but would clearly not imply a return to the 1967 borders nor the dismantlement of settlements, which would remain under Israeli sovereignty and whose territorial contiguity with Israel would be assured. The Jordan River would be Israel’s security border and the army would be deployed in a special security zone in the Jordan Valley. Jerusalem would become the undivided unified capital of Israel and be recognized as such by the new Palestinian entity, whose governing center would be outside the city’s existing municipal borders. Muslim and Christian holy places in Jerusalem would be granted special status. As for refugees, there would be no return to Israel, while entry to the new Palestinian entity would be subject to negotiations. Neither the Likud nor the Labor Party endorsed the plan.
BEIT DARAS MASSACRE
Military assault by Jewish forces on the Gaza-district village of Beit Daras on 11 May 1948, in which some 50 people were killed, in some accounts many of them women, elderly and children fleeing the fighting. In Historian Benny Morris’s account, Beit Daras and some nearby villages were to be surrounded and called upon to surrender and relinquish their arms. If they declined, they were to be mortared and stormed. For Beit Daras specifically, if it resisted, it was to be “destroyed (…) and dealt with in the manner of scorched earth.” Beit Daras had already been severely hit in a retaliatory strike on 20-21 April, when about 100 villagers were killed and wounded and many fled. On 10-11 May, Beit Daras was attacked for the last time. The village did resist and suffered about 50 casualties, many houses were destroyed, wells and granaries were sabotaged, and throughout the area there was ‘mass evacuation.’
Military occupation of enemy territory, i.e., the effective control by one or more ruling powers over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that/those power(s). Because such control has often been the outcome of the exercise of military force, this regime has been titled ‘belligerent’ occupation. The accepted definition of what amounts to an occupation is laid down in Article 42 of The Hague Regulations as: “Territory is considered occupied when it is actually placed under the authority of the hostile army. The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority has been established and can be exercised.” Belligerent occupation is assumed to be short-lived and provisional and implies that the sovereignty of the occupied territory is not vested in the occupying power. However, even in the case of prolonged occupation, the Laws of Belligerent Occupation, which govern the relationship between the occupying power and the occupied state and its inhabitants, including refugees and stateless persons, must be fully respected. Belligerent occupation is mainly governed by the 1907 The Hague Regulations, the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, and the customary laws of belligerent occupation.
BEN ELIEZER PROPOSAL
Plan put forward by then Israeli Defense Minister Binyamin Ben Eliezer (Labor) in July 2002, based on the "vision of two states for two peoples,” UN Security Council Resolutions 242, 338, and 1397, as well as the Clinton parameters and the Arab Peace Initiative (also: Saudi Initiative). The plan included fighting against terrorism, security separation (including the erection of a fence between Israel and the West Bank and Gaza Strip), negotiations, the establishment of a demilitarized Palestinian state in “most” of the West Bank and Gaza Strip with territorial continuity in the West Bank, and special arrangements for travel between the West Bank to Gaza. Israel would abandon settlements in Gaza and isolated ones in the West Bank, annex the large settlement blocs adjacent to Israel proper (with territorial swaps), and limit construction to the natural growth needs of existing settlements. West Jerusalem would be enlarged, including settlements in East Jerusalem, and be recognized as the capital of Israel. The Old City of Jerusalem and its holy sites would need a ‘special regime’, in which no one would obtain sovereignty over Haram Ash-Sharif. As for the 1948 refugees, the plan rejected their right of return and called for resettlement in the future Palestinian state or the granting of citizenship in their current host countries.
Report prepared by Ms. Catherine Bertini, under the auspices of UN-OCHA, as Personal Humanitarian Envoy of the UN Secretary General. The report was published on 19 August 2002, and concluded that “There is a serious humanitarian crisis in the West Bank and Gaza. The crisis is not a 'traditional' humanitarian crisis, such as those caused by famines or droughts, but is inextricably linked to the ongoing conflict and particularly to the measures imposed by Israel." The report was not binding, and was rejected by Israel.
Hebrew acronym for: Brith Yousef Trumpeldor) Zionist movement established in 1923 as the youth movement of Vladimir (Ze’ev) Jabotinsky’s Revisionist party and named after Joseph Trumpeldor, who died defending the settlement of Tel Hai. The movement emphasized Hebrew language, culture, and self-defense, as well as the goal of a Jewish state "on both sides of the Jordan." Its members fought against the British during the Mandate. They have been traditionally linked to the Likud party (and its prede-cessors). Today, Betar promotes Jewish leadership on university campuses as well as in local communities in Israel and internationally.
(Arabic: Al-Izzariyya) Biblical village recorded in the New Testament as the home of Mary, Martha, Lazarus, and Simon the Leper, as well as the place from where Jesus parted from his disciples at the Ascension. Today it is commonly identified with the Palestinian suburb of Al-Izzariyya some 2 km east of Jerusalem, which has been bisected by the Israeli Separation Barrier.
(Arabic: Beit Lahim) Palestinian governorate and city located 10 km south of Jerusalem. The governorate, which inter alia also includes the adjacent municipalities of Beit Jala and Beit Sahour as well as the refugee camps of Dheisheh, Beit Jibrin (‘Azza) and Aida, has an estimated population of 217,400, Bethlehem city itself of almost 29,000 (PCBS, 2019). The city’s main attraction is the Church of the Nativity, which is considered the birthplace of Jesus and thus makes it a prime destination for Christian pilgrimage. The city’s economy is primarily tourism-driven.
BILAD ASH SHAM
Arabic term traditionally referring to the region of the Levant or ‘Greater Syria’, i.e., the regions of the eastern Mediterranean (modern day Syria, Lebanon, Palestine/Israel, and Jordan).
West Bank village 12 km west of Ramallah that has gained international attention for its weekly non-violent demonstrations against the Israeli Separation Barrier beginning in 2005. The protestors include Palestinians (nearly all 1,800 villagers in Bil'in have participated in the protest), Israelis, and internationals. Over 1,000 people have been injured during and arrested as a result of the protests. In September 2007, the Israeli Supreme Court ordered the Israeli government to redraw the route of the Barrier near the village. However, no implementation of the order took place. In December 2008, the High Court of Justice found the Israeli Defence Ministry in contempt for failing to implement its ruling on the Separation Barrier and stated that the government must comply with their decision "without any further delays." A film portraying the protests shot from the perspective of the people of Bil'in over many years starting in 2005 called 5 Broken Cameras, by Emad Burnat and Guy Davidi, became popular after its release in 2012 and was nominated for Best Documentary Feature in the 85th Academy Awards. In March 2018, +972 Magazine reported that the protests had continued for then 13 years. It further noted that after years of struggle and “a Supreme Court ruling, the wall was repositioned in 2011, returning some 600 dunums of land back to the village, but over 1,000 remain on the other side of the wall, near the ultra-orthodox settlement of Modi’in Ilit.”
Series of eight resolutions adopted by the May 1942 Zionist Conference, which took place at the Biltmore Hotel in New York (thus sometimes referred to as Biltmore Conference), after the real dimensions of the Holocaust became known. Among the nearly 600 delegates were Zionist leaders from the US and 17 other countries. The program totally rejected the British 1939 White Paper and called for the establishment of a Jewish state. It urged that "Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth integrated in the structure of the new democratic world (after World War II)." There was opposition to the proposal by the non-Zionists and those who believed in a bi-national state. After approval of the resolutions by the Zionist General Council in Palestine, the Biltmore Program became the platform of the World Zionist Organization.
Concept of a single secular state providing a national home for both Israelis and Palestinians on the same territory (a one-state solution as opposed to partition/two-state solution). The idea of a bi-national state goes back to the 1920s, when it was proposed in one form or another by Jewish intellectuals, and has recently been revised in the face of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian violence, continuous Israeli unilateral measures to create facts on the ground in Palestinian territories, and the impasse in the negotiations. Nevertheless, it is estimated that a majority of both Israelis and Palestinians still reject the idea of a bi-national state. Main forms of bi-nationalism include the consociational democracy (e.g., Northern Ireland) and the federal model (e.g., Switzerland).
Term most generally referring to the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship. Birthright Israel (also known as Taglit, which means ‘discovery’ in Hebrew), is a program created in 1999 offering free “heritage” trips to Israel for young Jews, who are encouraged to discover their Jewish identity and connection to Jewish history and culture. To counterbalance Birthright Israel, Birthright Unplugged was formed in 2003 with the goal of exposing Jewish and non-Jewish visitors to Palestinian communities and the Palestinian side of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
(Arabic: Al-Fahd Al-Aswad) Para-military secular group formed by Fatah during the first Intifada in the northern West Bank. It became mainly known for executing Palestinian collaborators and attacking Israeli forces. Its apparent brutality and outright rejection of the peace process provoked public rebukes from the mainstream Fatah leadership. Following a harsh Israeli crackdown on their members and the signing of the Oslo Accords, which they jointly rejected with other groups such as the Fatah Hawks and Hamas, they lost strength but maintained arms and continued low-level violence. In 2005, a group under the same name (re-)emerged in Gaza, claiming responsibility for a number of kidnappings of foreign journalists and aid workers.
Military confrontation between the Jordanian army and Palestinian guerrillas in Jordan in September 1970 after PFLP commandos hijacked four airplanes "to pay special attention to the Palestinian problem," blew two of them up, and declared the Irbid region in Jordan a “liberated area”. The civil war-like confrontation began on 15 September 1970, when King Hussein, challenged by PLO attempts to create a ‘state within a state’, declared martial law and the US-backed Jordanian army began attacking the headquarters of Palestinian organizations, first in Amman, then in other locations as well. The fighting left some 2,000 dead and led, after weeks of bitter fighting, to the expulsion of the PLO leadership and troops from Jordan. When the PLO set up its new bases in Beirut, Israeli retaliatory air raids on Lebanon began.
BLACK SEPTEMBER ORGANIZATION
Palestinian group founded by Fatah members in the 1970s as a small cell and named after the 1970 'Black September' conflict between Jordanian military forces and Palestinian fighters (see entry above). The organization was joined by members of other factions and groups determined to take revenge on King Hussein and the Jordanian army, and operated from bases in Syria and Lebanon. The Black September Organization became known for the kidnapping and murder of eleven Israeli athletes and officials during the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.
(1.) The Arab conference that convened in 1937 in Bludan, Syria, in response to the 1937 Peel Commission Partition Plan. Participants rejected partition of historic Palestine and a Jewish state and confirmed Palestine as part of the Arab World. (2.) Arab League conference held on 8 June 1946 in Bludan. Participants denounced the findings of the 1945-46 Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry, criticized Western/US policy, and discussed ways in which Arab states could assist the Palestinians, including reconstituting the Arab Higher Committee and dispatching forces from various Arab armies into Palestine in the case of war.
BLUE AND WHITE
(coalition) see Kahol Lavan
Border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel drawn by the UN on 7 June 2000 to determine whether Israel had fully withdrawn from Lebanon. The Blue Line is based on the deployment of the Israeli army prior to 14 March 1978, when Israel launched Operation Litani and occupied the entire southern part of Lebanon. The blue line has been violated multiple times by both Israel and Lebanon.
BLUE LINE TEAM
(officially: State Property Delimitation Team) Unit established by the Israeli Civil Administration in 1999 to examine Israel’s declarations of state land in the West Bank. The team, consisting of cartographers, legal experts and inspectors, redraws existing maps (mostly from the 1980s) as “state land”, which is a necessary step for the allocation of land for settlement expansion or the retroactive “legalization” of unauthorized outposts, without warning the Palestinians living in those areas and without making the results public. The aim is to confirm that territory now designated state land is indeed land over which Israel has legal jurisdiction (retroactive legalization – often of outposts). Since the team began operating in 1999, it has remapped over 320,000 dunums of land, some 200,000 east of the Separation Barrier and 121,000 west of it.
(English: Sons of the Covenant) The world's oldest and largest Jewish fraternal and charitable organization, founded by a group of German-Jewish immigrants in 1843 in New York, with the goal of uniting Jews and protecting Jewish interests around the world. Today B'nai B'rith fights against Anti-Semitism and anti-Israel bias, provides senior housing and advocacy on issues of vital concern to seniors and their families, helps communities in crisis, and promotes Jewish identity through cultural activities. Its work is implemented by several centers. In recent years, B’nai B'rith reported hundreds of thousands of members and supporters, mainly in the US, and had a budget of $14 million.
BOLLING AIR FORCE BASE
US base near Washington, d.c., where Israeli and Palestinian delegations led by Oded Eran and Yasser Abed Rabbo held intense and secluded talks in spring 2000. Negotiations focused on some of the tough outstanding ‘final status’ issues with the aim of reaching a framework agreement by May 2000 and a final agreement by 13 September 2000. However, the talks ended without the hoped-for breakthrough.
BORDER GUARDS/BORDER POLICE
also known by its Hebrew abbreviation Magav) Military branch of the Israeli police, mainly professional officers on payroll and field policemen redirected from the army. All border policemen receive combat training and consequently are employed in unquiet areas, where there are greater risks for violence. They serve mainly in the countryside, in Palestinian villages and towns (along with the regular police), near the borders, and in the West Bank. The Border Guards heaviest area of operation is the city of Jerusalem.
Israel has never officially fixed its territorial borders, which are still based on those established by the British Mandate. When the state of Israel was established on 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion refused to define its borders, saying, “We are announcing the creation of a state in the Western part of our country.” Some Israeli Jews still refer to the West Bank as Judea and Samaria and consider it part of ‘Greater Israel’ or ‘Eretz Yisrael.’ Israeli peace groups, such as Gush Shalom, call for the pre-1967 borders, or Green Line, to be accepted as the 'border of peace.' In January 2001, agreements at Taba, Egypt (later repudiated by Israel), acknowledged the 1967 borders as the basis for lasting peace. Israel’s borders with Egypt and with Jordan have been formalized in peace treaties. The border with Lebanon is part of the 1949 Armistice Agreement, while the borders with Syria and the Palestinian territories are still not settled and have yet to be negotiated. The pre-1967 borders are internationally recognized and enshrined in international law.
Proposal for a new municipal mechanism for Jerusalem drafted in 1945 by Sir William Fitzgerald, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Palestine during the British Mandate, which never materialized. The plan placed the preservation of the city’s unity at the center and suggested separate Arab and Jewish councils be created with a degree of autonomy over respective boroughs. The Jewish borough was to be situated to the northwest of the Old City, while the Arab borough ran north to south with the Old City at its center.
BOYCOTT, DIVESTMENT AND SANCTIONS (BDS)
International campaign and movement launched on 9 July 2005 by 171 Palestinian NGOs, calling for boycott (withdrawing support for Israel and Israeli and international companies that are involved in the violation of Palestinian human rights, as well as complicit Israeli sporting, cultural and academic institutions), divestment (urging banks, local councils, churches, pension funds and universities to withdraw investments from Israeli and international companies involved in violating Palestinian rights) and sanctions (pressuring governments to fulfill their legal obligation to hold Israel accountable, e.g., by ending trade agreements or expelling Israel from international forums such as the UN and FIFA) against Israel until it complies with international law and universal principles of human rights. Refers to non-violent punitive measures aimed at pressuring Israel to recognize the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination and to comply with its obligations under international law. The three stated goals of the campaign are (1) an end to Israel's “occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall," (2) Israel’s recognition of the "fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality," and (3) Israeli respect, protection, and promotion of "the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in UN resolution 194." In March 2017, the Knesset passed a law (Amendment No. 27 to the Law of Entry to Israel), denying entry to alleged supporters of the BDS campaign. Israel subsequently announced a list of 22 NGOs whose staff or members were banned. These included: AFPS (The Association France Palestine Solidarité), BDS France, BDS Italy, ECCP (The European Coordination of Committees and Associations for Palestine), FOA (Friends of Al-Aqsa), IPSC (Ireland Palestine Solidarity Campaign), Norge (The Palestine Committee of Norway), Palestinakomitee, PGS (Palestine Solidarity Association in Sweden), Palestinagrupperna i Sverige, PSC (Palestine Solidarity Campaign), War on Want, BDS Kampagne, AFSC (American Friends Service Committee), AMP (American Muslims for Palestine), Code Pink, JVP (Jewish Voice for Peace), NSJP (National Students for Justice in Palestine), USCPR (US Campaign for Palestinian Rights), BDS Chile, BDS South Africa, and BNC (BDS National Committee).
BREACH OF LOYALTY BILL
Amendment to the Entry into Israel Law passed by the Knesset on 7 March 2018, which empowers the Israeli Interior Minister to revoke the permanent residency status of any Palestinian suspected of a “breach of loyalty” to Israel (i.e., terror, betrayal, or other anti-Israel activities) and have him/her deported. Based on this, Israeli Interior Minister Aryeh Deri issued an order on 29 April, stripping three Palestinian PLC members – Mohammad Abu Teir, Ahmad Attoun, and Mohammad Totah – as well as former PA Minister of Jerusalem Affairs Khaled Abu Arafeh (all affiliated with Hamas) of their residency rights. Three legal centers for human rights in Israel, HaMoked, Adalah, and ACRI, issued a joint response to the law, stating: “This law is unconstitutional and is intended to result in the illegal expulsion of Palestinians from Jerusalem, the city of their birth. Even though the revocation of residency entails a severe violation of basic rights – including the right to family, the right to free movement, and the right to freedom of employment – members of the Knesset nevertheless chose to grant the interior minister the authority to do as he wishes. East Jerusalem is occupied territory, and its Palestinian residents are a protected population under international humanitarian law. It is therefore forbidden to impose upon them an obligation of loyalty to Israel, let alone revoke their permanent residency status for "breach of loyalty," essentially resulting in their expulsion from the city.”
BREAKING THE BONES POLICY
Israeli army tactic to “punish” Palestinians who participated in the First Intifada. Then Defense Minister Yithzak Rabin gave orders in January 1988 to break the bones of “Palestinian inciters”. According to Save the Children Sweden “23,600 to 29,900 children required medical treatment for their beating injuries in the first two years of the intifada”, one third of whom were children under the age of 10. In July 1990, the Knesset rejected a motion to set up a special commission to investigate whether Rabin had given soldiers orders to break the bones of Palestinians and decided not to investigate the charges against Rabin.
BREAKING THE SILENCE LAW
(formally: State Education Law (Prevention of Activity in an Educational Institution of External Bodies Acting Against the IDF or the Goals of Education) Legislation approved by the Knesset with 43:24 on 16 July 2018, which stipulates that organizations delegitimizing the State of Israel, acting against soldiers and the objectives of the Israeli education system will not be permitted to enter school premises or meet with students. The law is named after its main target, Breaking the Silence, an organization made up of former Israeli soldiers who report about their negative experiences serving in the OPT. Critics have called it the “occupation silencing law”.
Six-point plan for the Middle East presented by then Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev on 15 September 1982. The plan included: (1) the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force, and thus (2) the need for a complete Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem; (3) the exercise of the inalienable rights of the Palestinians to self-determination and to the establishment of their own independent state; (4) the safeguarding of the right of all states in the region to secure an independent existence and development; (5) the termination of the state of war and the establishment of peace between the Arab States and Israel; and (6) the elaboration and adoption of international guarantees of a peaceful settlement. The six points were subsequently reaffirmed on 5 January 1983 by the Political Consultative Committee of the States Parties to the Warsaw Treaty.
Form of administrative control given to the British by the League of Nations, based on the decision of the 1920 San Remo Conference awarding to France the mandate for Syria and Lebanon and to Britain that of Palestine, Transjordan and Mesopotamia (Iraq). The fact that the British mandate included references to the Balfour Declaration and the establishment of a Jewish homeland was a severe blow to the Arabs. The League of Nations Council formally approved the mandate on 24 July 1922 – without the consent of the Palestinians – which then became official on 29 September 1923. Sir Herbert Samuel was appointed first High Commissioner. By the power granted under the mandate, Britain ruled Palestine in the years 1920-1948. In 1947, Britain decided to terminate the Mandate and submitted the Question of Palestine to the UN. On 15 May 1948, the Mandate officially ended.
BRITISH MILITARY ADMINISTRATION
(also: Occupied Enemy Territory Administration – OETA) Military rule in Palestine that followed the British conquest of Palestine in 1917 and lasted until 1920 when the British Mandate and its civil administration replaced it.
Document Palestinians must obtain from the Israeli authorities (except in PA-controlled areas) in order to be able to build on their land. Because Israel’s policy is politically motivated, it is very difficult for Palestinians to obtain building permits, which is particularly true with regard to East Jerusalem, where Israel aims to maintain a Jewish majority. Even if a permit is granted, there are still very high costs accompanied with it. Consequently, many Palestinians build without permits and their homes are thus ‘illegal’ under Israeli law, making them vulnerable to Israel’s house demolition policy. One of the main obstacles in obtaining building permits are Israeli declarations of land as ‘unfit for building’ or as ‘green’ or ‘open space,’ where construction is forbidden. Often this is the case in areas earmarked for future building by Israel (e.g., settlement expansion). Additional obstacles to obtaining permits includes inability to prove land ownership, which was not documented under Ottoman rule, the British Mandate, Jordanian, or Israeli rule, and high costs of permits.
(English: lightning) According to Islamic belief, a winged horse-like creature that first bore Mohammed on his Isra’ (night journey) from Mecca to a place in Jerusalem near the Western Wall of the Second Temple, and then to heaven on his Miraj (ascension) in the company of the angel Jibril. Traditions also state that Al-Buraq was the mount of all the prophets.
Structure built on the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound next to its western wall, known as Al-Buraq Wall. The main gate of Al-Buraq Mosque, located in Al-Aqsa’s western wall, is permanently sealed, but it is still open for prayers to worshipers via another entrance located in the western corridor of the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound. The Mosque derived its name from a ring that is nailed to its wall which Muslims believe Prophet Mohammad used in order to tie Al-Buraq, the magnificent creature that carried him from Mecca to Jerusalem in the night journey of Al-Isra’ wa Al-Miraj.
BURAQ REVOLT or RIOTS
Part of Al-Haram Ash-Sharif, remnant of Herod's Temple, and holy to both Jews and Muslims. To Jews it is the Western or Wailing Wall (see entry below), while Muslims remember this as the wall where Prophet Mohammed tied his winged creature, Al-Buraq, before ascending to heaven on his journey from Mecca to Jerusalem (Isra’ wa Al-Miraj), where he received his revelations of Islam and lead the other prophets of God in prayer.
Attack by Palmach forces on Burayr, northeast of Gaza City, on 12-13 May 1948. According to the sources of Israeli historian Benny Morris, Jewish forces killed a large number of villagers, executing dozens of army-age males, and raping and murdering a teenage girl. Remaining inhabitants fled to Gaza.
BUREIJ REFUGEE CAMP MASSACRE
(1.) Attack on Bureij refugee camp, located in central Gaza, carried out on 28-29 August 1953 by the notorious Unit 101 led by Ariel Sharon. The UN report states that “Bombs were thrown through the windows of huts in which refugees were sleeping and, as they fled, they were attacked by small arms and automatic weapons. The casualties were 20 killed, 27 seriously and 35 less seriously wounded. An article by Arab public intellectual and political philosopher Azmi Bishara put the number killing 43 people, including 7 women, and wounding 22. Other Israeli historians place the number killed around 30. The Mixed Armistice Commission called it “a ruthless reprisal raid” and “an appalling case of deliberate mass murder.”
(2.) 16 April 2018 attack on the refugee camp by Israeli forces after a Hamas ambush that killed three Israeli soldiers on the previous night. According to Reuters, the Israeli attack killed eight by-standing minors and a Reuters cameraman named Fadel Shana. The soldiers who fired on Shana and those around him were not held accountable for the deaths, leading to outrage among media and press protection organizations.
BURJ AL LAQLAQ
(English: Storks Tower) Site located at the northeast corner of the Old City, which was built in 1537. The site was acquired by Burj Al-Laqlaq Community Society from private Palestinian owners to be used for social, educational and recreational activities. Due to its size and location, the center has become a target for harassment by Israeli Occupation forces. On 25 July 2005, the West Jerusalem Planning Committee approved a plan (dating back to 1990 when Ariel Sharon was housing minister) for construction of a Jewish settlement (21 housing units and a synagogue) on a 3.8-dunum site next to the center. The Israel Land Administration owns 1.9 dunums (absentee property) of the land in question while Himanuta Ltd., a subsidiary of the Jewish National Fund, owns 1,3 dunums, which were reportedly acquired privately from the White Russian Orthodox Church in 1982. In 1998, settlers from Ataret Cohanim – protected by Israeli soldiers – laid the 'cornerstone' for the new settlement and moved land caravans to the area. However, due to the ensuing confrontations with Palestinians, the process was halted in June 1998 by the Israeli government, which ‘compensated' the settlers by allowing excavation works at the site. In addition, it should be noted that the construction proposed at the site represents a technical and engineering violation of the Old City regulations since Burj Al-Laqlaq is not only an archeological site but also a 'green area' where building of any kind is prohibited. According to Palestinian human rights organization Al-Haq, as of Ramadan 2019, three demolition orders were pending against the center.
BUS 300 AFFAIR
Refers to the murder of two Palestinian hijackers of an Israeli bus by agents of the Shin Bet, and the subsequent attempt within the Shin Bet to hide the truth. In April 1984, four PFLP activists hijacked Egged Bus No. 300 en route from Tel Aviv to Ashkelon with 41 passengers and forced it to drive to the Gaza Strip in order to press for the release of some 500 prisoners from Israeli jails. In Deir Al-Balah, the bus was stormed by Israeli forces. During the operation, one passenger and two of the hijackers were killed, while the other two reportedly were wounded and died en route to a hospital. However, a government report later revealed that the two detained hijackers were tortured and beaten to death by agents on order by then Shin Bet chief Avraham Shalom.
Section of Silwan village outside the Old City, which contains some 90 houses. Most of the houses were built in the 1980s and 1990s, which the West Jerusalem Municipality’s city engineer Uri Shetreet ordered to be demolished in November 2004 to expand of the ‘King’s Valley archeological park.’ In June 2005, the municipality handed the inhabitants of Al-Bustan demolition orders for 88 houses, home to over 1,500 people. After residents requested that the Attorney General prevent the destruction and international pressure to halt the demolitions mounted, then-Mayor Uri Lupoliansky retracted the plan in 2005, asking Palestinian residents to propose a plan that would meet their development needs, which they presented in 2008. However, city engineer Shlomo Eshkol informed them that the plan would not be considered in the immediate future, and that the municipality was proceeding with the plan to build a national park on the site. Several homes were demolished in the neighborhood, and on 22 February 2009, Israeli Authorities of the Jerusalem Municipality served citizens of Al-Bustan notices to evacuate their houses within 72 hours or face forced evacuation. In early 2010, the municipality filed a new plan for the area, including a tourist park called King’s Valley or King’s Garden, which would destroy 88 houses and displace some 1,400 people. Several plans were been submitted in the following years to license the threatened homes to no avail. The municipality postponed the demolition orders of Al-Bustan homes until March 2017, and although several housing structures were destroyed in October and December 2017, other demolitions remain outstanding. On 15 January 2019, Israel handed demolition orders to ten families in Al-Bustan.
Term that emerged from the Oslo Accords, referring to roads built for and used by Israelis to link settlements with each other and with Israel proper to circumvent Palestinian built up areas. The main rationale behind these roads is the ‘security’ of the settlers, but many also argue that they also serve the purpose of dividing the West Bank into isolated ‘cantons’ and blocking Palestinian development. It is argued that bypass roads entirely bury the possibility of establishing an independent contiguous and viable Palestinian state. Bypass roads are under Israeli control and entail a 50-75-m buffer zone on each side of the road in which no construction is allowed. Typically, they are built at the expense of Palestinian agricultural land and development plans. According to OCHA, as of September 2018, Israel had constructed some 400 km of bypass roads in the West Bank. Palestinians are denied access to most of them (often enforced with cement blocks, trenches, earth-mounds, barbwires and iron gates) under the pretext of military and/or security purposes. The largest bypass road networks are in the Ramallah and Hebron areas.
CABLE CAR PROJECT
Israeli plan to build a cable car to transport tourists and others along the Old City’s southern walls and across Silwan, to be completed in 2021. The project was defined by the Israeli Ministry of Tourism as a “national priority,” a category usually reserved for advancing infrastructure. Architects, preservationists, and tour guides oppose the cable car project due to its visual implications for the Old City and the Historic Basin and because it would not actually reduce traffic patterns as claimed. Palestinians were not even consulted about it. Opponents say it serves larger ideological interests and prioritizes politics over sustainability. Under the current plan, the cable cars would pass from near the First Station (west) over Abu Tor, the Hinnoam Valley, and the Old City Walls, stop at Mount Zion, and then atop the Dung Gate at an archeological site and a yet-to-be-built tourist center run by the right-wing City of David Foundation in the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan. Two additional stops – one at the Gethsemane Garden and the other at the Mount of Olives – would be implemented at a later stage.
CAIRO AGREEMENT (Fatah-Hamas)
(1.) Egyptian-mediated agreement reached on 27 April 2011 and formally signed on 4 May 2011 by PA President Mahmoud Abbas and Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal in Cairo, paving the way for a transitional technocratic government, preparation for elections, and Hamas’ access to the PLO. However, persistent differences between the two sides led to the suspension of further talks.
(2.) Reconciliation Accord signed by Hamas and Fatah in Cairo on 20 May 2012, to carry out the previous Doha Agreement, signed three and a half months earlier, and prepare for elections of a new unity government. However, because of continued disagreements between the two sides, the agreement was terminated.
(3.) Understanding reached between Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh and PLO Chairman/PA President Mahmoud Abbas and signed on 25 September 2014 in Cairo, stipulating that the Palestinian Unity Government would assume its responsibilities in the Gaza Strip and allow the PA to take control over the border crossings, work on lifting the siege and reconstructing the Gaza Strip, convene a donor conference, revive the PLC, and implement the understanding laid down in the 2006 and 2011 National Conciliation Documents. However, no further steps were taken towards a unity government.
CAIRO AGREEMENT (Israeli-Palestinian)
CAIRO DECLARATION (Fatah-Hamas)
Document signed on 19 March 2005 by Fatah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, PFLP and DFLP in a bid to unite the Palestinian factions against the Israeli occupation. This first attempt at Intra-Palestinian conciliation also called for reforming the PLO so as to include all Palestinian groups.
CAIRO HAIFA TRAIN MASSACRE
Bomb attack on 31 March 1948, in which Zionist paramilitaries planted explosive mines on the track as a Haifa-bound train from Cairo passed the Jewish town of Benyamina. According to a New York Times article from the following day, 40 Arab civilians were killed and 60 others wounded. The article stated that the mines, which were said to have been laid by “terrorists,” had the shape and markings of Jewish make and that a Jewish source attributed the attack to the Lehi “Stern” gang. The last two cars of the train were carrying British soldiers and did not derail so the soldiers escaped uninjured.
(Arabic: Khalifa) Combining the notions of ‘successor’ and 'deputy', referring to Prophet Mohammed’s successors to lead the Muslim community. The four caliphs, known as Rashidun (the rightly guided ones), are Abu Baker Sadiq, Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, Othman Ibn Affan, and Ali Ibn Abu Taleb.
(also: Camera Law) Legislation proposed by Prime Minister Netanyahu's Likud party ahead of the second general election held in Israel in 2019 (after the failure to form a government following the first election), which would permit representatives of political parties to film both outside and inside polling stations on Election Day. While filming people casting their actual vote would not be permitted, the law would allow party representatives to film any conversation between election committee members and voters "at the polling place or its vicinity” as well as keep the video and audio documentation. The draft law, which was motivated by Netanyahu’s fear of elections fraud, especially among the Palestinian electorate and which critics said was aimed at intimidating those voters, was approved by Netanyahu’s cabinet on 8 September 2019 but voted down a day later in a Knesset hearing.
US presidential retreat outside Washington, D.C., where numerous Middle East negotiations have been held, including Egyptian-Israeli talks in 1978, brokered by President Jimmy Carter, which led to the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. More recently, Camp David was the place where President Clinton unsuccessfully attempted in July 2000 to achieve a similarly historic final settlement between Israel and the Palestinians.
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS
Israeli-Egyptian agreements signed by Egyptian President Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Begin, witnessed by US President Carter at the White House on 17 September 1978 after 12 days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The first agreement dealt with all aspects of withdrawal from the Sinai and offered a framework for the conclusion of an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. The second agreement established a format for the conduct of negotiations for the establishment of an autonomous regime in the West Bank and Gaza. In November 1978 the Arab Summit in Baghdad rejected the accords and ostracized Egypt from the Arab League. The actual Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty was signed on 26 March 1979.
CAMPBELL BANNERMANN REPORT
Report submitted in 1907 to British Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman by a committee of scholars from seven European countries that were commissioned to study ways to assure the continuity of European colonialist interests. The report emphasized that Arab countries and the Muslim-Arab people living in the Ottoman Empire presented a very real threat to European countries, especially if and when they are liberated, are united, and progress. It recommended that the British government should split and divide the Arab world in order to weaken it and gain control of it. It thus recommended disintegration, division, and separation in the region to establish artificial political entities that would be under the authority of the imperialist countries. This would fight any kind of unity – whether intellectual, religious or historical, and practical measures would be taken to divide the region’s inhabitants. To achieve this, the report proposed a “buffer state” in Palestine, populated by a strong, foreign presence that would be hostile to its neighbors and friendly to European countries and their interests. As the report was strategically important it was suppressed and until today never released to the public. However, reference was made to it by lawyer Antoine Canaan in various lectures in 1949, as well as by renowned Egyptian writer Muhammad Hassanein Haikal and others.
CENTER OF LIFE POLICY
Discriminatory regulation, introduced by Israel in 1995, authorizing the confiscation of ID cards from Palestinian Jerusalemites who are unable to offer proof to the Interior Ministry and the National Insurance Institute that Jerusalem has been their center of life for the past seven years by producing tax receipts, educational certificates, employment records and utility bills that demonstrate continuous residence in the city. This measure made applications for family reunification very difficult and was also applied with regard to granting permits to visit the Occupied Territories to residents living outside. Revocation of residency rights has to date affected over 14,000 East Jerusalemite Palestinians who are denied the right to live and work in Jerusalem and have lost access to social benefits for themselves and their families.
(Hebrew: Hamercaz) Short-lived moderate party in Israel (1999-2003) established by Yitzhak Mordechai, Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, Roni Milo and Dan Meridor to carve out a centrist position between Labor and Likud. They called for a separation between Israel and the Palestinians but did not rule out the option of uprooting settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and supported territorial compromise in the Golan Heights. The Center Party began to unravel following Mordechai's resignation from the Barak led government in 2000, amid a sex scandal, and the party did not run in the 2003 elections.
Traditional system of rabbinic distribution of remittances from Jewish communities abroad to fund religious communities in Palestine – especially in Jerusalem. It was the primary source of income for Jewish communities in Palestine until the advent of Zionist immigration and production-based economic activities.
CHANGE AND REFORM
Name under which Hamas ran in the January 2006 PLC elections when they obtained 42.9% of the vote, winning 74 of 132 parliament seats, partially due to public impatience with the PA’s corruption and its inability to win concessions in negotiations with Israel. In the election manifesto, Hamas omitted its call for the elimination of Israel, calling instead for the "establishment of an independent state whose capital is Jerusalem." Hamas also vowed an end to corruption and lawlessness in the Palestinian territories and advocated cutting ties with Israel, while strengthening relations with Arab countries. Further, Hamas promised to build an independent economy, effective health and education systems, and to reconstruct the Palestinian infrastructure.
(Arabic: hajez, Hebrew: mahsoum) Roadblocks and other barriers imposed by the Israeli army or border police permanently or temporarily throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip, to control/restrict the movement of Palestinians between villages and towns. In many cases, especially with regard to permanent checkpoints, Palestinians require previous permits issued by the Israeli authorities in order to be eligible to pass. Checkpoints cause immense travel delays and restrictions. As a result, deaths occasionally occur when individuals, including women in labor and/or ambulances, are prevented from reaching hospitals/medical care, and often agricultural products are spoiled due to delays lasting up to several days. By 2019, B’Tselem identified 66 permanent staffed checkpoints within the West Bank (24 of which are in Hebron), 34 temporarily staffed checkpoints, not including hundreds of physical roadblocks.
(Arabic: hajez, Hebrew: mahsoum) Roadblocks and other barriers imposed by the Israeli army or border police permanently or temporarily throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip, to control/restrict the movement of Palestinians between villages and towns. In many cases, especially with regard to permanent checkpoints, Palestinians require previous permits issued by the Israeli authorities in order to be eligible to pass. Checkpoints cause immense travel delays and restrictions. As a result, deaths occasionally occur when individuals, including women in labor and/or ambulances, are prevented from reaching hospitals/medical care, and often agricultural products are spoiled due to delays lasting up to several days. By 2019, B’Tselem identified 66 permanent staffed checkpoints within the West Bank (24 of which are in Hebron), 34 temporarily staffed checkpoints, not including hundreds of physical roadblocks.
Belief system in support of the state of Israel and the development of a Jewish commonwealth. Belief that the founding of the state of Israel and the gathering of Jewish exiles is the first stage of the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies. The second stage is then the return of the Messiah to the land of Israel. Their theological position is that in the end of days all Jews will be killed with the exception of 144,000 who accept Christ. The International Christian Embassy in West Jerusalem, which is non-governmental, represents these Christians, but is not recognized by the historic churches in the Holy Land.
The Christians in Israel and Palestine, and throughout the Middle East, belong to the Eastern Orthodox (the Greek Orthodox Church being the largest and most prominent), Oriental Orthodox (including the Coptic Orthodox Church and Armenian Apostolic Church), Catholic Church (mainly Latin Catholic, Greek Catholic/Melkite, and Maronite), and the Evangelical/Protestant Church (mainly Anglicans and Lutherans). All of these denominations are members of the Middle East Council of Churches, which serves as an umbrella organization. The number of Christians in the region has declined significantly during previous decades, either because of persecution, or as a consequence of voluntary emigration. As a percentage of the total population, their decline is even more significant because they generally have lower birth rates than the surrounding Muslim society. Declines are most acute in Palestine where the size of the Christian community has dropped from approximately 10% of the total population in 1948 to less than 2% today.
CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY
Site identified by Christian tradition as the birthplace of Jesus since the 2nd Century, which makes it a prime destination for Christian pilgrimage. In 339 CE, for the first time a church was completed there and the edifice that replaced it after a fire. In 2012, it became the first UNESCO World Heritage site to be listed under “Palestine.” Inscribed as “Birthplace of Jesus: the Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Palestine),” it was also was also placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger to the poor state, from which it was, however, removed in June 2019 after extensive restoration and renovation works had taken place.
(also: White Paper of 1922) British policy statement on Palestine, named after the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Winston Churchill, which was issued by British High Commissioner Sir Herbert Samuel in June 1922 in the wake of escalating violence. The memorandum stated that Arab hostility against Jews stemmed from Jewish immigration and Zionist policy and reasserted British support for the idea of a Jewish national home in Palestine, for which “it is necessary that the Jewish community in Palestine should be able to increase its numbers by immigration.” However, it stated that the British government did not wish to see Palestine become "as Jewish as England is English", but rather see the establishment of "a center in which Jewish people as a whole may take, on grounds of religion and race, an interest and a pride." Further, the memorandum iterated that Jewish immigration should not exceed the economic absorptive capacity of the country.
CHURCHILL WHITE PAPER
CITIZENSHIP AND ENTRY LAW
(formally: Nationality and Entry into Israel Law 'Temporary Order' – 2003) Legislation passed by the Knesset on 31 July 2003, prohibiting citizenship, permanent residency and/or temporary residency status to West Bank/Gaza Palestinians married to Israeli citizens. Nearly all of the affected Israeli families – over 21,000 – are Arab. The law also denies citizenship to children born to an Israeli citizen and resident of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Via special permission from Israel's Interior Minister, children will be allowed to remain with their family in Israel until the age of 12, when the child will be uprooted and forced to leave the state. The Law has been extended several times since its creation.
(also referred to as Nationality Law) Israeli law of 1952, which details the provisions for the acquisition and loss of the Israeli nationality. It stipulates that, “Every emigrant under the Law of Return will become a citizen of Israel as a direct result of the return” (Article 2(a)) and at the same time deprives Palestinians who were residents of Palestine prior to 1948 of the right to gain citizenship or residence status in Israel (Article 3). Amendment No. 10, enacted on 28 March 2011, allows courts to revoke the citizenship of persons convicted of treason, espionage, assisting the enemy in time of war, violating state sovereignty and acts of terrorism. The amendment was proposed following the arrest and indictment of Arab civil society leader Ameer Makhoul on charges of espionage and has since been used discriminately against Palestinians.
CITY OF DAVID
Narrow promontory beyond the southern edge of Haram Ash-Sharif and the Old City, where Israelis claim King David created the city of Jerusalem over 3,000 years ago. The area is part of the Palestinian village/neighborhood of Silwan, which maps issued by the Israeli government and Israeli organizations include as the City of David. Since Israel gained control over East Jerusalem in 1967, Jewish settler organizations (Elad and Ateret Cohanim) have sought to re-establish a Jewish presence in Silwan, particularly in the Al-Bustan neighborhood (see above). Jewish settlers have taken several houses and apartments in the area and it is estimated that at least 500 of them live in Silwan (2018).
CIVIL WRONGS (LIABLILITY OF THE STATE) LAW
Israeli law of 1952 which established the limits of the state's liability for the payment of compensation for damage caused by security forces acting on its behalf in a "war-time action". Amendment No. 4 of 2002 redefined "wartime action" as “any action of combating terror, hostile actions, or insurrection, and also an action as stated that is intended to prevent terror, hostile actions, or insurrection committed in circumstances of danger to life or limb" whether the affected parties are innocent or not. Amendment No. 8 of 2012 created further obstacles to justice and accountability as it widely exempts Israel from its liability for injuries and damages inflicted by its forces on Palestinians in or from the OPT.
(also: Clinton Proposal) Guidelines for final accelerated negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis formulated by then US President Clinton, who hoped to conclude a comprehensive agreement between the two sides before the end of his term in office. The parameters, given orally to Israeli and Palestinian negotiators at a trilateral meeting in the White House on 23 December 2000, built upon previous negotiations with Israel, but fell short of the international legal standard for ending Israel’s occupation and recognizing the rights of Palestinian refugees. The parameters were officially outlined in Clinton’s speech to the Israeli Policy Forum on 7 January 2001 in New York and served as the basis for the Taba Talks later that month (Prime Minister Barak and President Arafat both accepted the parameters, with reservations, as the basis for further talks, but the election of Ariel Sharon in February effectively ended the peace process). The parameters included: (1) the establishment of a non-militarized "sovereign, viable Palestinian State that would accommodate Israel's security requirements and the demographic realities" in most of the West Bank and Gaza Strip with few land swaps; (2) a solution for the refugees that would allow them to return to a Palestinian state, resettlement in their current locations, or in third countries, as well as compensation from the international community for their losses and assistance in building their new lives; (3) an international presence to provide border security and monitor implementation of the final agreement; (4) "fair and logical propositions" regarding Jerusalem to remain an open and undivided city with assured freedom of access and worship for all with incorporation of the principle ‘what is Arab should be Palestinian’ and ‘what is Jewish should be Israeli'; and (5) an official end to the conflict.
CLOSED MILITARY ZONE OR AREA
Areas declared by the Israeli army to be closed in order to deny access to civilians, including journalists, for instance to prevent demonstrations or civil disobedience. Those declarations are based on the emergency rules created by the British Mandate in 1945. Usually Closed Military Zones are characterized by a massive increase in military presence and heavy surveillance of the local Palestinian population. While Palestinians are forbidden to enter these areas without authorization from the Israeli military commander, Israeli citizens, Jews from throughout the world, and tourists are permitted to enter without special permits. Considerable parts of such closed areas are used by settlers for the benefit of expanding settlements.
(also referred to as siege or blockade) Israeli-imposed movement restrictions for Palestinian goods and labor under the pretext of ‘security.’ There are three basic forms: internal closure (movement restriction within the West Bank and Gaza Strip through a network of military checkpoints, reinforced by curfews); external closure of the West Bank and Gaza borders with Israel; and external closing of international borders (e.g., Gaza international airport, border crossings with Jordan and Egypt). Closures are of unspecified duration, may be total or partial, and are often imposed without explanation. Whole cities or only certain areas can be closed off or a particular population group (e.g., men under the age of 35) can be excluded from movement. Closures seriously disrupt daily life, preventing Palestinians from reaching hospitals and other medical care, schools and universities, as well as working places and places of worship.
Checkpoints, roadblocks, and other barriers imposed by the Israeli army or border police permanently or temporarily throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip, to control/restrict the movement of Palestinians between villages and towns. In many cases, especially with regard to permanent checkpoints, Palestinians require previous permits issued by the Israeli authorities in order to be eligible to pass. Checkpoints cause immense travel delays and restrictions; as a result, deaths occasionally occur when individuals, including women in labor, and/or ambulances are prevented from reaching hospitals/medical care, and often agricultural products are spoiled due to delays that can last for several days. According to OCHA, there were 705 closure obstacles blocking internal Palestinian movement in the West Bank as of September 2018, including 140 permanently or partially staffed checkpoints.
Underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock stretching along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel and the Gaza Strip. Its length from north to south is 120 km and its width 7-20 km. The active storage of the aquifer is estimated at 20 billion cubic meters of water and its safe yield is close to 300 million cubic meters (mcm)/year with an estimated annual recharge of 55‐65 mcm. The aquifer contributes some 20% of Israel’s fresh water supply and is also the main aquifer in the Gaza Strip. Increased seawater intrusion, infiltration of contaminants, particularly chlorides and nitrates, through the surface soil layer, and dropping water levels due to over-exploitation have all decreased the fresh water storage in the aquifer (with total pumping exceeding total recharge).
(Arabic: Al-Amil) Term referring to those who betray their own people, generally out of a position of weakness or suffering (i.e., under torture) or driven by personal benefits. In the Palestinian context, collaborators are individuals who cooperate with Israeli authorities, providing intelligence information on people within their own community or performing other tasks on behalf of the occupiers. There are four primary types of collaborators: land dealer (simsar al-‘ardi), intermediary (al-wasit), armed (al-amilal-musallah), and informer (jasous). The Palestinian collaborator is an expression of Israel's larger 'defense' policies, in which the collaborator serves the purpose of creating mistrust, spreading confusion and undermining collective self-confidence within Palestinian society. Masterminding this strategy is Israel’s secret police Shin Bet. The PA has offered on various occasions an amnesty to collaborators in return for a full confession. Over the years, several collaborators found guilty of helping Israel to assassinate Palestinian activists have been sentenced to death and formally executed. Other (suspected) collaborators have been killed (sometimes hung in public) by activists from the various factions. Some collaborators are motivated by financial benefits while in other cases Palestinians have been blackmailed by Israeli intelligence officers.
Israeli practice of punishing entire Palestinian families, neighborhoods, communities, or cities for the act of one or a few. Forms of punishment include the sealing or demolishing of homes, imposing curfews, erecting roadblocks, confiscating personal property, uprooting trees, destroying agricultural land and infrastructure (e.g., water systems), and closing commercial, educational and cultural sites. In Gaza, collective punishment of the people has resulted in a massive humanitarian crisis, as Israel has closed all border crossings, de facto isolating the strip from the rest of the world, has disrupted power supplies and fuel shipments, increased monitoring of funds, ceased visits to prisoners, and allowed only essential food and medicine to be brought in. Collective punishment is expressly forbidden by Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention and is prohibited by Israel's own laws as well.
Non-violent form of economic protest that emerged during the first Intifada, initially as an on-the-spot protest at Israeli army actions and later organized throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip with shops being shut down for days and sometimes weeks. Due to the resulting loss of income, tax revenues to Israel were drastically reduced. In more recent years, one- or two-day commercial strikes are called for by the various political factions in response to Israeli attacks, assassinations or other actions. During strike days, Palestinians are encouraged to take to the streets in peaceful protests.
COMMITTEE OF UNION AND PROGRESS (CUP)
(also: Young Turks) Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, which had its origins in secret societies of progressive students, army officers, and government officials, who operated underground after the constitution was abrogated by the Sultan. In 1908, CUP leaders led a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore constitutional rule. The rebellion was widely supported by both Arab nationalists and Zionists and resulted in Hamid being deposed and exiled. Soon after, Muslims, Christians and Jews joined together to found a branch of the CUP in Jerusalem. The CUP effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until 1918, but it soon became clear that their goal was the Turkification of the Ottoman domain rather than granting local autonomy to minorities. In response, Arab intellectuals in Beirut, Cairo and Damascus formed clandestine political societies (e.g., the Ottoman Decentralization Party, Al-Ahd and Al-Fatat), though these lacked support among the masses.
(also: Realignment Plan) Plan formulated by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert during the election campaign for the 17th Knesset in 2006 claiming that, if he was elected Prime Minister, he would unilaterally remove Israeli settlements from most of the West Bank within four years and consolidate them into large groups of settlements near the 1967 border. In fact, the plan foresaw the annexation of some 10% of the West Bank, including settlements and historic areas in East Jerusalem, along a perimeter defined more or less by the Separation Barrier (all area west of it). Israel would expand settlements west of the barrier and withdraw its settlers from the remaining areas, while maintaining exclusive security control over all territories as well as over the border crossing points to Jordan.
COORDINATOR OF GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE TERRITORIES (COGAT)
Head of a unit, subordinated to the Israeli Defense Ministry, which is in charge of coordinating civilian issues between the Government of Israel, the army, international organizations, diplomats, and the PA. Headquartered in Tel Aviv, it has branches in the fields of economics, infrastructure, international relations and foreign affairs, public appeals, spokesperson office, and an advisor for matters related to Palestinian affairs.
(English: separate body) Status proposed for Jerusalem and surrounding areas, including Bethlehem, by the UN General Assembly within the Partition Plan of November 1947. The city, within an area of 186 km2, was to be internationalized under a UN trusteeship, which would have guaranteed freedom of access to holy places, provided an international police force, and remained responsible for foreign affairs. After a ten-year period a plebiscite was to be held, after which further recommendations would be discussed by the trusteeship council. UN General Assembly Resolution 303 of 9 December 1949 reiterated the UN commitment to the internationalization of Jerusalem, and designated it a "corpus separatum."
COUNTER TERRORISM LAW
Israeli law, passed on 15 June 2016, which includes draconian measures for investigating political detainees, expands the use of secret evidence, and substantially expands the powers of the police and the General Security Services. It allows the Defense Ministry to designate any “body of persons” a terror organization, as long as its activities fit within the legal parameters of the term (Section 3 a). As the law’s definitions of ‘terrorism’ and ‘terrorist organizations’ are rather broad and vague, it empowers the security establishment to legally implicate organizations that simply express solidarity with allegedly militant Palestinian groups. The law is often exploited by law enforcement authorities to criminalize legitimate actions of Palestinians, including closing of institutions (as was the case with the Elia Association for Youth in East Jerusalem in April 2018).
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY
Atrocities and offences committed against a civilian population before or during war. These include inhumane acts such as murder, extermination, deportation, enslavement, and mass systematic rape, as well as persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds.
Form of collective punishment and means of control employed by the Israeli government/army whereby inhabitants of a Palestinian community are forced to stay indoors for a specified period of time (hours, days and sometimes weeks) with occasional breaks to stock food and other supplies. Curfews were used particularly during the first Intifada, for instance, to prevent the spread of public protests.
Archer Cust in September 1929 regarding the status quo arrangements and rights governing the holy sites in and around Jerusalem, which had been in place since 1757. Cust’s report described in detail which rooms, lamps, stairs, hours of worship, etc. belonged to which religious community and which rites may be practiced in each of the holy places by each religion. The report served the mandatory authorities as a guide in dealing with the politics of the holy places. Although his report did not include all sites (e.g., not the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound), the report has since been considered an authoritative source on the status quo.
CYBERCRIMES LAW (Palestinian Authority)
Law (Law No. 16) passed by President Mahmoud Abbas in secret in June 2017 officially aimed to reduce cybercrime. Prior to this, there had been difficulties in prosecuting illegal activities in the digital sphere, such as blackmail and identity theft. However, it was quickly used to prosecute human rights activists and reduce internal opposition leading to calls from civil society, journalists and human rights organizations for it to be reformed on the grounds that it infringed upon privacy and freedom of expression. Concerns were also raised with regard to the vague specification of the law. For example, Article 20 opposed the propagation of news that threatened “national unity” but such vague terminology could be interpreted in terms of the PAs goals. As a result of objections, the law was amended in 2018 (Law No. 10) with changes such as, inter alia, the removal of Article 20, reduction of harsh punishments, and the omission of criminalization related to loosely defined terms. Despite these changes, many still object to the law as having resulted in decreased press freedom and many suggest that a broader cyber security strategy is needed.
(also spelled Dabkeh) Traditional folk dance of both men and women in the Levant and the national dance of Lebanon, Palestine, Syria and Jordan. Dabkeh translates as stomping of the feet. Stomping, as well as jumping and kicking, are moves that are represented in the dabkeh. The leader, called raas (head) or lawwih (waver), is allowed to improvise the type of dabkeh being performed, while simultaneously twirling a handkerchief or string of beads known as a masbha (similar to a rosary). Meanwhile, the dancers use vocalizations to energize the performance and punctuate the rhythm. It is also a dance of solidarity and a way of expressing nationalism through art.
(also spelled Dahya or Dahieh) Israeli military strategy of asymmetric warfare, first outlined by recent Israeli army Chief of General Staff Gadi Eizenkot in 2006, then the Head the Northern Command of the Israeli army. It encompasses the destruction of the civilian infrastructure of regimes deemed to be hostile – i.e. Hizbullah and Hamas – and endorses the employment of "disproportionate force" to cause great damage and destruction. The doctrine is named after the Dahiya neighborhood of Beirut, where the Israeli army heavily bombed apartment buildings during the 2006 Lebanon War, claiming they were also used as Hizbullah command centers and built over their bunkers. Israel has also implemented the “strategy” in Gaza, "designed to punish, humiliate and terrorize a civilian population", as the Goldstone Report (commissioned by the UN Human Rights Council as part of the Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict in January 2009) concluded. Critics call the use of excessive and disproportionate force and the targeting of government and civilian infrastructure during military operations a war crime.
DAMASCUS GATE MASSACRE
(1.) Bombing by the Irgun at Damascus Gate outside the Old City of Jerusalem on 12 December 1947, which according to controversial Israeli military historian Uri Milstein, left 20 people killed and 50 wounded.
(2.) Attack on 29 December 1947 reported by the Australian Cairns Post via a Reuter’s representative in Jerusalem, in which Irgun paramilitaries threw a barrel full of explosives at a crowded Arab orange market near Damascus Gate in Jerusalem which resulted in the death of at least 5 Palestinians, including a young boy, as well as a British constable. The Scottish Glasgow Herald reported that the attack was aimed at a bus queue near the orange market killing 13 Arabs and still other sources maintain that 20 people were killed with 27 wounded.
(also: Alliance of Palestinian Forces or Damascus Alliance) Umbrella group of ten Palestinian factions – DFLP, PFLP, PFLP-GC, PPSF, PLF, Fatah-Uprising, PRCP, Al-Sa‘iqa, Hamas & Islamic Jihad – formed in September 1992 as the 'National Democratic & Islamic Front' to oppose the peace negotiations with Israel and reaffirm the legitimacy of all forms of struggle to liberate the Palestinian homeland. The coalition is based in Damascus and has been largely ineffective, in particular because of fundamental ideological differences between the Islamic groups such as Hamas and secular factions like the PFLP. In 1998, the Damascus Ten re-established itself as the 'Palestinian Follow-up Committee' in opposition to the signing of the Wye River Memorandum, and a year later the DFLP and PFLP were expelled for their reconciliation with the PLO leadership under Arafat. In 1999, Syrian government authorities issued an instruction to the Damascus-based factions to end armed actions, a move which meant that the idea of the alliance as a coordination of armed struggle was abandoned. Thus, today, it has a largely marginalized structure.
DAR AL TIFL AL ARABI
(English: House of Arab Children) School located in East Jerusalem that was established by Hind Al-Husseini as an orphanage for victims of the Deir Yassin massacre in 1948. The school is in Dar Husseini in Jerusalem, in the home her grandfather built, and has grown into a school, museum, and adjoining college.
Attack by Israeli forces (89th Battalion) on the village of Dawayima northwest of Hebron on 29 October 1948 as part of “Operation Yoav,” in which men, women, and children were killed in their homes, in the streets, and in the hills as they fled. Many sources contain conflicting numbers of casualties but the massacre was likened by some to Deir Yassin. Israeli historian Benny Morris writes that 80-100 were killed in what was reported as the “first wave” of the attack but notes that other sources reported numbers as high as 500 to 1,000 (the American Consul-General in Jerusalem). According to a Jewish informant by the name of Sh. or Shabtai Kaplan, the second wave of attacks included blowing up houses with men and women inside them, at least one case of rape, and Kaplan quoted a soldier as stating that “cultured soldiers” had turned into “base murderers.”
DAY OF RAGE
Days of mass protests called for by Palestinians to express their outrage against certain policies, decisions or incidents. They take the shape of demonstrations and protest marches, sometimes sparking widespread riots, and are often accompanied by general strikes.
Palestinian security personnel trained by US-American private contractors and the Jordanian Public Security Directorate under the mission of US Security Coordinator for Israel and the PA, Keith Dayton, during 2005-2010. Lt. General Dayton was in charge of the vetting, training, equipping, and strategic planning of PA special battalions (nicknamed “Dayton Forces”). The training facilities (located outside of Amman) were provided by the US and equipped by Egypt. The mission was controversial with some senior Pentagon officers arguing that a US training mission may raise serious objections among Arabs and Israelis claiming they were a threat. Many Palestinians indeed viewed the forces as an extension of the occupation and a means to suppress PA dissent in the West Bank, and there were many accounts of torture and abuse of power.
DEAD SEA RED SEA CANAL
DEAL OF THE CENTURY
back-channel peace plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, announced as a general goal by President Donald Trump first during his presidential campaign in 2016. After taking office, he commissioned his son-in-law and senior advisor, Jared Kushner, his long-time chief legal officer, Jason Greenblatt, and US ambassador to Israel, David Friedman, to work out such a peace blueprint. Their approach differed from previous “mediation” efforts as they did not envision engaging in a negotiating process that would lead to an agreement. Instead, they worked backward: presenting a comprehensive solution first, and then figuring out how to get there. While the “deal” is yet to be published in its entirety and has been postponed repeatedly it is expected to clearly prioritize Israeli interests over Palestinian rights and ignore basic principles of international law as well as the idea of two sovereign states. The first part of the peace plan was unveiled during the “Peace to Prosperity” economic workshop held in Manama, Bahrain on June 25-26 2019. The workshop showed that the plan focuses on economic cooperation, investment and development in the Palestinian territories – in line with Prime Minister Netanyahu’s “economic peace” preference, assuming that in exchange for improving Palestinian lives they will compromise on their rights and aspirations. However, Palestinian leaders as well as civil society have already expressed their rejection of the “deal” in the period leading to the workshop due to the plan failing to address the Israeli occupation, the calls for Palestinians rights and self-determination. Also, the EU and other international organizations such as the IMF have questioned the feasibility of the plan due to its lack of providing a political solution and departing from the two-state solution.
(Arabic: Al-Lamarkaziyya) Party founded in Cairo in January 1913 by Arab elites from Greater Syria to promote reforms, including administrative decentralization in Arab provinces and equal rights for all Arabs within the framework of a multinational Ottoman state. The Decentralization Party was accused of being an agent of Western powers and was opposed by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) and other conservative groups. The party also established branches in Nablus, Jenin, Jaffa and Tulkarem, but never became very influential.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
(1.) Statement issued by the Arab Higher Committee on 1 October 1948 in Gaza proclaiming “the full independence of the whole of Palestine as bounded by Syria and Lebanon from the north, by Syria and Transjordan from the east, by the Mediterranean from the west, and by Egypt from the south, as well as the establishment of a free and democratic sovereign State.”
(2.) Document issued by the 19th Palestine National Council convening in Algiers on 15 November 1988 (written by Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish) declaring the formation of the independent State of Palestine, "The Palestine National Council, in the name of God, and in the name of the Palestinian Arab people; hereby proclaims the establishment of the State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Holy Jerusalem (Al-Quds Ash-Sharif)", and explicitly endorsing the notion of two states for two people, one Jewish and one Palestinian. The document has thus far been recognized by 160 nations.
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES
(formally: Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements) Agreement reached between PLO members and Israeli officials after being secretly negotiated in Oslo, Norway, and later signed in Washington, D.C., on 13 September 1993. It provides the guidelines for future negotiations as well as for a five-year interim autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, followed by a permanent settlement based on UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. The declaration postponed difficult issues such as Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, water, security, and borders, and was accompanied by letters from Yasser Arafat promising to change the PLO Charter, which called for the destruction of Israel, and from Yitzhak Rabin, proclaiming Israel's intent to allow normalization of life in the occupied territories. Continued negotiations led to the 1994 Oslo I and 1995 Oslo II Accords (see Gaza-Jericho Agreement and Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip).
Term first articulated by Harvard University researcher Dr. Sara Roy in 1987 with regard to the deteriorating economic situation in the OPT, specifically the process of lowering its economic standard as compared to the pre-1967 period by denying permits to build factories or repair infrastructure. More recently, key features of this process are the effects of the Israeli closure regime, which has defined the Palestinian economy since the Oslo period, including the separation of Gaza and the West Bank, the isolation of Jerusalem, and the checkpoint and permit policies, all of which make any prospects for economic improvement and development impossible.
DEFENSE (EMERGENCY) REGULATIONS
Set of provisions enacted by the British Mandate government in September 1945 against illegal immigration, establishing military tribunals to try civilians without granting the right of appeal, allowing sweeping searches and seizures, prohibiting publication of books and newspapers, demolishing houses, sealing off particular territories, detaining individuals administratively for an indefinite period, and imposing curfews, etc. Israel incorporated the Regulations into its law in 1948 (Government and Law Arrangements Ordinance) and used them as the legal basis for the military rule imposed on Israel's Palestinian citizens in the early 1950s. Since the 1967 occupation, Israel has used these regulations extensively in the OPT, mostly as pretext for (collective) punishment and deterrence (e.g., demolition and sealing of houses, deportations, administrative detention, imposing closures and curfews, and searching, confiscation and expropriation of property).
DEIR AL BALAH MASSACRE
Israeli air attack, bombing the refugees’ food distribution centers in Deir Al-Balah and Khan Younis, Gaza, in January 1949. According to Palestinian researcher Salman Abu Sitta and journalist Terry Rempel, an ICRC delegation visiting Gaza detailed six separate incidents of intensive Israeli aerial and artillery bombing on Gaza’s city center and the refugee camps of Khan Younis, Breij, Rafah, and Deir Al-Balah. They recorded some 190 civilian deaths and over 400 injured over the course of six days (2-7 January) and stated that the attacks were “acts of cruelty without military objectives.”
Arab village on the western outskirts of Jerusalem which was attacked by Irgun and Stern Gang units on 9 April 1948, although it had a non-aggression pact with the Haganah. During the assault over 200 villagers were murdered, including many children and women, and the remaining inhabitants were expelled. The massacre, which was condemned by the Jewish Agency, was one of the main incidents that spurred the Arab exodus from other locations in Palestine. The ‘Deir Yassin Massacre’ is commemorated annually on the same day
Coalition launched before the Palestinian local government elections (that were initially scheduled for 2016 but then postponed until May 2017) as a third party option to Fatah and Hamas. It was made up of five left-wing factions (PFLP, DFLP, Palestinian People's Party, Palestinian Democratic Union - Fida, and the Palestinian National Initiative), along with several unaffiliated independent candidates, and was coordinated by Mohammed Hamarsheh.
Israeli Russian and socialist immigrant party founded in 1999 after splitting from Natan Sharansky's Yisrael Ba'Aliya faction. At first it was called the Society and Reform Party and its constituency was made up almost entirely of Russian immigrants. It won two seats in the 1999 elections and ran in a joint list together with the Meretz and Shahar parties in 2003, gaining six seats. Two months before the 2006 Knesset elections the party withdrew its candidacy following party founder Roman Bronfman's decision not to run in the election. The party did not run in any subsequent elections.
DEMOCRATIC FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINE (DFLP)
(Arabic: Al-Jabha Ad-Dimuqratiyya li-Tahrir Filastin) Left-wing Palestinian group formed by Nayef Hawatmeh (Abu Nouf) on 22 February 1969 after a split from the PFLP following an ideological dispute over the necessity of adopting a Marxist program. The DFLP began a dialogue with the Israeli extreme left in 1970 and was the first PLO faction to call for a negotiated settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on the two-state solution. The party adopted pragmatic positions and attempted to find a midway position between PLO Chairman Arafat and his opponents. The DFLP was a member of the United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) during the first Intifada, but split in 1990-91 over policy differences with Yasser Abed Rabbo, who formed the non-Marxist FIDA. The DFLP refused to attend the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991 and opposed the Oslo process. The majority of its leaders have returned to Palestine since 1996 and reconciliation with Arafat took place in Cairo in August 1999, where both sides defined red lines on permanent status negotiations. The DFLP is represented in the PLO Executive Committee by Taysir Khaled. The group launched an attack on an Israeli army base in August 2001 in Gaza, marking the first such attack in 10 years. In 2006, the DFLP held its own national conference and participated in the PLC elections, with politburo member Qais Abdul Karim (Abu Leila) gaining a seat. The party is surrounded by a suite of popular and democratic organizations which have their own programs dealing with the interests of youth, women, and workers.
Punitive measure prohibited without exception by Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) but used by Israel against Palestinian civilians. Since 1967, some 1,700 Palestinians have been deported. The latest and largest deportation occurred in December 1992, when 415 alleged Islamist activists were expelled to Marj Az-Zuhur in South Lebanon. The UN Security Council repeatedly condemned Israel for its deportation policy, most recently in 1992 (Resolution 799). Until 1992, none of the deportees had been charged with a criminal offence, nor tried and convicted. Since the signing of the Declaration of Principles in 1993 most deportees have been allowed to return and Israel has not deported any Palestinians from the OPT. However, during the Al-Aqsa Intifada (2000-05), Israel adopted a new “deterrent” measure, forcibly transferring relatives of Palestinians who had killed and injured Israelis from the West Bank to the Gaza Strip. In addition, the cases of deportation of foreign nationals (including foreign passport-holding Palestinians) working in Palestinian civil society or studying at Palestinian universities and supporting BDS activities have considerably increased.
Term used by Jews and Palestinians to denote Jews/Palestinians living outside Israel or in exile from Palestine, respectively.
see Jordanian Dinar
Refers to Jordan’s severance of all administrative and legal ties with the occupied West Bank which was announced by King Hussein on 31 July 1988, a day after he formally dissolved Parliament, ending West Bank representation in the legislature, and three days after he had canceled a $1.3 billion development program for the West Bank, explaining that the measure was designed to allow the PLO more responsibility for the area. While King Hussein claimed the move was merely acquiescence to the wishes of the PLO, it was also seen as a clear message to all of the major players in the Middle East peace process that the notion of the "Jordan option" was not viable from Jordan's standpoint.
Plan proposed by then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon at the Herzliya Conference on Security on 18 December 2003 to evacuate all settlers from Gaza and four settlements in the northern West Bank with a stated goal of creating "maximum security with minimum friction" between Israelis and Palestinians. The Disengagement Plan was introduced in early February 2004, at the peak of international criticism of Sharon's project of the Separation Barrier and just ahead of the hearings at the International Court of Justice in The Hague. On 16 February 2005, the Knesset passed the Disengagement Implementation Law by a vote of 59-40 (with 5 abstentions). The plan was implemented during August and September 2005. However, Israel retains control of all land borders, air space, and sea access to Gaza.
Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip who were either absent (abroad) or displaced during the War of 1967 or who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the Israeli census of September 1967 and were prevented from coming back by Israel. Negotiations on displaced persons started in 1995 but an inability to agree upon the definition of the term ‘displaced persons’, with Israel agreeing to only accept those displaced during the war, brought negotiations to a standstill in 1997 (see also Internally Displaced Persons).
Term frequently used by Israel and the US to soften or intentionally confuse the status of areas occupied by Israel in 1967.
DISTRICT COORDINATION OFFICE (DCO)
Coordinating body established as a result of the September 1995 Oslo II Agreement and jointly operated by both Israelis and Palestinians to serve as a contact point for officials from the two sides. The DCO has monitored and managed matters of a joint nature that required coordination, such as security (e.g., joint patrols), incidents involving Israelis and/or Palestinians (e.g., road accidents), and administration (e.g., permit requests). Currently it is mainly charged with issuing Palestinian residents of the district magnetic cards, work permits for Israel, permits for one-time entry reasons, various police permits, etc.
(sometimes also: Disinvestment) Activity where people/shareholders withdraw their monetary investments from companies or countries. Divestment (or disinvestment) is thus the opposite of an investment, i.e., the process of selling an asset for either social, financial, or political goals. With regard to the Israeli occupation, it refers to a campaign initiated in 2002, conducted by religious and political entities with the aim to pressure the Israeli government to put an end to the occupation of Palestinian territories. Divestment campaigns – disinvestment from corporations engaged in or profiting from the occupation – targeting Israel can be traced back to the early 1990s but first received media attention in 2002, thanks largely to a petition at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This was followed later that year by calls from South African anti-Apartheid activist Desmond Tutu for the international community to treat Israel as it treated South Africa under Apartheid. In 2003, the Toronto assembly of the United Church of Canada voted to boycott goods produced by Jewish settlements; in July 2004, the Presbyterian Church (USA) voted to initiate a process of divestment; and in 2005, the Geneva-based World Council of Churches, the United Church of Christ, and the New England Conference of the United Methodist Church followed suit. In May 2006, the Ontario section of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) approved a resolution to "support the international campaign of boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel until that state recognizes the Palestinian right to self-determination." Britain's National Union of Journalists called for boycott in April 2007, and in May 2008, the largest Irish public sector and services trade union criticized Israeli suppression of the Palestinians and endorsed a boycott of Israeli goods and services. In June 2014, the pension board of the United Methodist Church voted to divest from companies contributing to the Israeli occupation, and the Presbyterian Church voted to divest from Caterpillar Inc., Hewlett-Packard and Motorola Solutions – all multinational corporations operating in Israel involved with demolition and surveillance activities against Palestinians.
DOHA AGREEMENT (Fatah-Hamas)
Deal reached between Fatah and Hamas and signed on 7 February 2012 aimed at forming a transitional government of independent technocrats with a limited mandate (preparing for presidential and legislative elections and starting Gaza reconstruction) with diplomacy resting with the PLO. Both sides agreed that Mahmoud Abbas would serve as both PA President and Prime Minister of the interim cabinet to overcome international concerns about Hamas’ participation and Hamas’ refusal to appoint then Prime Minister Fayyad as the head of the unity government. The initiative was seen as a step forward in the stalled implementation of the Hamas-Fatah reconciliation agreement signed in Cairo on 27 April 2011, but failed to truly reconcile the two Palestinian factions.
DOME OF THE ROCK
(Arabic: Masjid Qubbat As-Sakhra) Mosque built in the 7th Century by the Ummayad Caliph Abdul Malik Bin Marwan on Al-Haram Ash-Sharif. It is the spot from which the Prophet Mohammed ascended into Heaven in Lailat Al-Miraj (Night of the Ascent) on the 27th of the month of Rajah. Various mementos of the Prophet's Nocturnal Journey – a handprint, a footprint, the spot from which he ascended – are found on the Rock. The Rock itself is believed to have come from Paradise and angels visited it 2,000 years before the creation of Adam. It also is believed to be closer to heaven than any other spot on earth and is guarded by angels. All sweet waters of the earth have their source under it, Noah's ark rested on the Rock after the flood subsided, and here the angel Israel will blow the last trumpet on the Day of Judgment. The golden-domed octagonal oratory was originally completed in 691 (see also Al-Aqsa Mosque).
Religious community with roots in Islam (from which it split in the 11th Century) that follows the teachings of Darazi, Hamza Ibn Ali Ibn Ahmad, and Baha Eddin. Druze call themselves muwahidun – monotheists (singular: mowahid) who believe in reincarnation, abstract concepts of heaven and hell, and celebrate the granting of the Qur'an to Mohammed. Their religion is secretive and its principles are not known to many. Druze are a national-religious minority in Lebanon, Syria and Israel, where they represent approximately 1% of the population, living mainly in the Golan Heights, Galilee and Carmel areas. Druze are loyal to the state of Israel and typically serve in the Israeli army.
DUAL USE GOODS
Products, materials and technologies normally used for civilian purposes, but which may have military applications, hence there is an international obligation to control their trade. With regard to exports to the OPT, the Israeli government enforces additional controls, which it has unilaterally applied for the first time in 1976 on certain chemicals and fertilizers. Israel’s “dual use list” has been progressively expanded since and includes, as of 2019, 56 items deemed as “security threats” that are restricted in the West Bank and Gaza, including fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, materials, machinery, and equipment. In addition, the list contains another 62 items forbidden in Gaza only, including reinforcing steel, cement, aggregates, insulating panels, timber for furniture manufacture, and many more. The World Bank and other international organizations estimate that easing these restrictions would bring an estimated 6% growth in the West Bank economy and 11% in Gaza by 2025.
(also: dunam) Unit of land area used in the Ottoman Empire and still used in many countries formerly part of it. Originally the size of a dunum was 919.3 square meters, but in 1928 the metric dunum of 1,000 square meters (approximately ¼ acre) was adopted, and is still used in Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey.
E1 PLAN (EAST 1 PLAN)
Longstanding Israeli plan – thus far not implemented – to build a large new Israeli neighborhood in the narrow undeveloped land corridor running east of Jerusalem. Construction of E-1 would break the West Bank into two parts, while isolating East Jerusalem from the rest of Palestinian territory, thus making a viable future Palestinian state impossible. The plan comprises about 12,000 dunums of land, a significant part of which is privately owned Palestinian land but was declared 'state land' by Israel in the 1980s and is today included in the municipal area of the Ma'ale Adumim settlement. In 2002, then Defense Minister Binyamin Ben Eliezer signed the Master Plan for E-1, and although due to international pressure it remained basically shelved, the “Judea and Samaria District Police” headquarters have been situated there since 2008. In December 2012, in response to the UN approving the Palestinian bid for "non-member observer state" status, Israel announced that it was resuming planning and zoning work in E-1 area, and in September 2017, it recommenced the earlier halted construction of parts of the Eastern Ring Road (see below).
EARLY EMPOWERMENT AGREEMENT
EAST GHOR (MAIN) CANAL
see King Abdullah Canal
Area comprising the 6.5 km2 of the pre-1967 Arab East Jerusalem municipal boundaries, which were under Jordanian administration from 1949 to 1967, and 70 km2 of West Bank land belonging to some 28 surrounding villages that was occupied and subsequently illegally annexed by Israel following the 1967 War. Since then, consecutive Israeli governments have pursued a policy aimed at changing Jerusalem’s Palestinian-Arab character by 'Judaizing' it, and creating a new demographic and geopolitical reality that would thwart any future attempt to challenge Israeli sovereignty over the entire city. Although Israel unilaterally proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital on 28 June 1967, subsequently extended its jurisdiction to the eastern part of the city, and reaffirmed this de facto annexation by declaring Jerusalem its ‘eternal undivided capital’ through its 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel, East Jerusalem remains occupied territory under international law. Thus the Fourth Geneva Convention is applicable and Israel has no claim to East Jerusalem by virtue of having taken control of it militarily. Therefore, the vast majority of the international community has consistently denounced Israeli attempts to change the character and status of the city, and has never recognized the annexation of East Jerusalem (consequently, most foreign embassies and consulates are in Tel Aviv).
EASTERN AQUIFER BASIN (EAB)
Transboundary aquifer located and recharged almost entirely in the West Bank, with a feeding and storage area spread over 2,200 km2. A small part of recharge is located west of the Green Line, including in West Jerusalem. The Oslo II Agreement, in which water became an interim issue, estimated the recharge of the EAB at 172 mcm/year, predominantly in the mountains of the West Bank, where most rainfall occurs. This aquifer feeds the lower Jordan River, and is therefore considered a Palestinian contribution to the waters of the Jordan River Basin. Additionally, some of the groundwater emerges as springs (such as Al-Auja near Jericho). Although Palestinians should have full sovereignty over all the EAB resources that lie beneath the West Bank, Israel utilizes millions of cubic meters each year through wells, with the highest amount of well pumping occurring in Israeli settlements near the main fault in the Jordan Rift valley.
EASTERN GATE PROJECT
A settlement construction project originally approved during the Barak Administration (1999-2001) with the aim of connecting the Ma’ale Adumim settlement with the Pisgat Ze'ev settlement and Mount Scopus, thus dividing Arab East Jerusalem in half. The plan involves the confiscation of private Palestinian property and includes the construction of a light railway as well as Jewish-only housing and business projects. (See also E-1 Plan).
EASTERN RING ROAD
Bypass road connecting the Jewish settlements located east of Jerusalem, stretching from Beit Safafa, via Sur Baher, Umm Tuba, Wadi Nar and Abu Dis, with each other and with West Jerusalem, including a tunnel built under the Mount of Olives. Construction on the most controversial part of the route (Route 4370) started in September 2017 and opened in January 2019. It is divided in the middle by an eight-meter high wall, the eastern side of which serves settlers from the north, who can now reach French Hill, Mount Scopus and the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway more easily from Anatot, Geva Binyamin and Route 60, while Palestinians can only use the western side which does not allow them to enter Jerusalem (thus Palestinians refer to it as “Apartheid Road”). The Eastern Ring Road’s southern extension near Sur Baher (dubbed American Highway) was also completed in 2019.
Arrangement envisaged under the UN Partition Resolution of 29 November 1947 by which the three successor entities in Mandatory Palestine – the Arab state, the Jewish state, and the international enclave (“Corpus Separatum”) – would continue with one currency and within a customs and tariff union.
EGYPTIAN TEN POINTS
EID AL ADHA
English: The feast of the sacrifice) The second obligatory Muslim festival (after Eid Al-Fitr), the origins of which go back to the Prophet Abraham who demonstrated his willingness to sacrifice all that he loved most dearly for God's sake, a commitment which is commemorated in the last rite of the pilgrimage to Mecca. A four-day feast completes the rites of pilgrimage and takes place on the 10th-13th of Dhul Al-Hijjah.
EID AL FITR
(English: The feast of breaking the fast) Three-day feast marking the end of Ramadan and celebrating a time of thanksgiving to God who has enabled Muslims to overcome the difficulties of the month of fast. It takes place on the 1st of Shawal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.
Israeli military commission, led by Israeli former general Giora Eiland, charged with conducting an internal investigation of the Gaza aid flotilla (Mavi Marmara) incident of May 2010 – which resulted in the death of 10 Turkish activists. The Commission’s report, released in July 2010, concluded that mistakes had been committed at all levels of command, that bloodshed could have been reduced or even prevented by political means, and that responsibility for the raid on the flotilla rests with the Israeli army, not the government.
(Hebrew acronym for: To the City of David; also known as Ir David Foundation) Israeli organization founded in 1986 that aims to increase Jewish presence in the Palestinian East-Jerusalem neighborhood of Silwan, located right outside the Old City, by purchasing property for Jewish settlers (as of 2019, at least 400 settlers had moved to Silwan according to the Israeli NGO Terrestrial Jerusalem). It also runs an archeological park that promotes the biblical (Jewish) history of the area and manages the touristic settlement site ‘City of David’, on behalf of the state of Israel.
ELON PEACE INITIATIVE
Seven-part peace plan for the Middle East proposed by Binyamin (Benny) Elon, former leader of the extreme right-wing Israeli party Moledet, in 2002. The plan consists of (1) a government decision declaring the PA an enemy; (2) military action to destroy the Palestinian terror infrastructure; (3) nullification of the Oslo Accords and dismantlement of the PA; (4) after the cessation of hostilities, commencement of negotiations under international auspices (with the refugee problem to be solved through relocation in Arab countries and the dismantlement of refugee camps); (5) acceptance of two countries for two peoples on two sides of the Jordan River: the Jordanian-Palestinian state with Amman as its capital, and the Jewish state with Jerusalem as its capital; (6) Arabs remaining in Judea, Samaria & Gaza would become citizens of the Jordanian-Palestinian state, while Palestinians holding Israeli citizenship would be offered alternate citizenship in the Jordanian-Palestinian state; and (7) expulsion of those Arabs remaining in Judea, Samaria and Gaza who breach the terms of this plan to the Jordanian-Palestinian state.
Palestinian government formed by President Mahmoud Abbas following Hamas's takeover of the Gaza Strip and subsequent dismissal from the PA government on 14 June 2007. The emergency government was sworn in on 17 June 2007 with Salam Fayyad as Prime Minister and Finance Minister. Hamas disputed the legitimacy of this new Fatah government, asserting that Ismail Haniyeh "remains the head of the government even if it was dissolved by the president" and is exercising de facto authority in the Gaza Strip.
see Hostile Entity
(English: Land of Israel) Refers to the territories, which were part of the Jewish Kingdom(s), i.e., Palestine and part of today’s Jordan, in the Hebrew Bible. Though there is no explicit biblical call for the establishment of the State of Israel in all of Eretz Israel, right-wing and other parties reject Israeli withdrawal from any territory considered Eretz Israel currently under Israeli control, including the OPT.
Systematic elimination of an ethnic group or groups from a region or society, through deportation, forced emigration, or genocide. As such it is considered a war crime/crime against humanity under international law. Scholars and activists have used the term in the Palestine-Israel conflict with regard to Israel’s efforts to Judaize Palestine through its discriminatory and restrictive policies vis-à-vis the Palestinians, including denial of permits, movement limitations, property destruction, land confiscation, and population transfer (of settlers) to the Palestinian territories.
see Gush Etzion
EUROPEAN MIDDLE EAST PEACE INITIATIVE
Diplomatic initiative developed in November 2006 by France, Spain and Italy, which aimed at finding a resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The plan included five elements: an immediate ceasefire, the formation of a Palestinian unity government that would receive international recognition, prisoner exchange between Israel and the PA, talks between the Israeli and Palestinian prime ministers, and deployment of an international force in Gaza to reinforce the ceasefire. While Palestinians welcomed the plan in principle, Israel did not take it seriously on the grounds that it was not coordinated with the whole EU.
EUROPEAN UNION BORDER ASSISTANCE MIS¬SION (EU BAM)
EU Civilian Crisis Management Mission in the Gaza Strip, which was mandated to provide a third-party presence at the Rafah crossing point in order to build up the Palestinian capacity on all aspects of border management and contribute to building confidence between the PA and Israel. Following the Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007, the EU BAM no longer manned the facility; its current mandate was extended on 28 June 2019.
EUROPEAN UNION POLICE CO-ORDINATING OFFICE FOR PALESTINIAN POLICE SUPPORT (EUPOL COPPS)
EU Police mission established on 14 November 2005 under the EU's European Security and Defense Policy in order to, according to a 30 November 2005 BBC news article, “reform and rebuild the police force in the West Bank and Gaza." Operations began on 1 January 2006 and are designed to support the PA in taking responsibility for law and order, and in particular, in improving its civil police and law enforcement capacity. EUPOL COPPS is headquartered in Ramallah with currently 70 international and 45 national staff. As of 2019 the Head of Mission is Kauko Aaltomaa.
EUROPEAN UNION SPECIAL ENVOY
EU's representative to the Middle East Peace Process, who also acts as the EU envoy to the Middle East Quartet. The position is currently held by Dutch diplomat Susanna Terstal (September 2018-February 2020). Generally, the Special Envoy works in close contacts with all major players towards the resumption of meaningful negotiations with the aim of achieving a comprehensive peace agreement based on a two-state solution.
(Arabic: Tanfithyeh) 'Police' or ‘special operational’ force formed by the late Interior Minister Said Siam (Hamas) in May 2006 as a counter to the Fatah-dominated PA Security Forces to defend the Hamas government (officials and establishments) in the Gaza Strip. In January 2007, President Abbas declared the Executive Force illegal until such time as it would integrate into the national security apparatus. The militia, under the leadership of Abu Obaidah Al-Jarrah, engaged in bloody clashes with Fatah forces, which ended with Hamas seizing control of the Gaza Strip in June 2007. In October 2007, the Executive Force was merged with the official police force controlled by the Hamas’ Ministry of Interior.
Controversial amendment to the ‘Basic Law: The Knesset’, which passed in the Knesset in July 2016. With the support of 90 out of the 120 MKs, it allows for the dismissal of an incumbent MK who incites to racism or supports an armed struggle against Israel. Opponents criticize that the law thus allows for the Israeli Jewish majority in the Knesset to further delegitimize and marginalize the elected political representatives of the Palestinian minority in Israel on the basis of purely political and ideological considerations. In May 2018, the High Court of Justice dismissed one of two petitions against the Law.
EXTRA JUDICIAL ASSASSINATION OR KILLING
Legal term referring to the killing of one or more persons by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process. Israel preferably uses “extrajudicial killing” over “targeted killings” with regard to its assassinations of alleged Palestinian militants. Extrajudicial killings are always illegal under international law.
EZZEDIN AL QASSAM
(formally: Bill for the Removal from the Internet of Content Whose Publication Constitutes an Offense) Proposed Israeli legislation submitted by the Israeli Ministry of Justice in 2016, which passed in the Knesset in its first reading on 17 July 2018, which demands deleting "inciting" content from social media. If passed into law, it will authorize the court to issue orders to delete internet content which was classified as harmful to "human safety, public, economic, state or vital infrastructure safety," including blocking content of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and private blogs. The bill was halted before passing into law by Prime Minister Netanyahu, because there was concern that in its current format, police could ask a court to remove anything from the Internet without the person who put it online being able to respond in court.
(also: Camp 1391) Controversial secret Israeli prison, under the control of the military intelligence. Located inside an army base near the main road between Hadera and Afula in northern Israel, the facility had been erased from maps and aerial photographs and its existence was unknown to the public until 2003, when lawyers issued habeas corpus writs for Palestinian clients who had disappeared while being detained there during the mass round-ups of 2002. It has housed many Lebanese nationals abducted by the Israeli army as hostages, Iraqi defectors, and a Syrian intelligence officer, most of whom were released as part of a prisoner swap with Hizbullah in January 2004. At a later date, scores of Palestinians were incarcerated there for interrogation. Facility 1391 has never been independently inspected and precise information about conditions in the prison is difficult to obtain due to a government-imposed information blackout and the fact that even the ICRC is denied access, but allegations of torture and mistreatment are common. Israeli officials claim that Camp 1391 "is no longer used since 2006 to detain or interrogate suspects," but several petitions filed to the Israeli Supreme Court by the Committee Against Torture to examine the facility have been rejected.
Eight‑point peace plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed by then Prince (later King) Fahd of Saudi Arabia in August 1981, calling for: (1) Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories occupied in 1967, including East Jerusalem; (2) removal of all Israeli settlements established on Arab land since 1967; (3) guaranteed freedom of worship in the holy places for all religions; (4) affirmation of the Palestinian people’s right of return to their homes and compensation for those who decide not to do so; (5) UN control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip for a transitional period (not exceeding a few months); (6) establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital; (7) affirmation of the right of all states in the region to live in pace; (8) the UN or some of its members guarantee and implement the principles listed above. The plan was adopted with minor changes at the Arab League summit in Fez, Morocco, in September 1982 (see also Fez-Plan).
FAISAL WEIZMANN AGREEMENT
Israeli legislation regarding the right to live with a (foreign) spouse in Israel. An Israeli census conducted immediately after the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967 counted 66,000 Palestinians living in East Jerusalem within the new municipal borders. While these Palestinians were classified as permanent residents of Jerusalem (according to the Law of Entry into Israel 1952, Entry to Israel Regulations 1974), those who were not recorded due to absence – whether studying abroad, visiting relatives elsewhere, etc. – later had to apply for family reunification through the Ministry of the Interior. Until this day, any Palestinian who is not classified by the Israeli government as a permanent resident of East Jerusalem – including spouses, children and other relatives of East Jerusalem permanent residents – must apply for family reunification to reside legally there. The decision to grant or deny these applications is, according to Israeli law, ultimately at the discretion of the Interior Minister, who is not required to justify refusal. In May 2002, Israel suspended the processing of family reunification claims between Palestinian citizens of Israel and Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza. The subsequent 2003 Citizenship and Entry Law (extended annually, most recently in November 2019), prohibits citizenship, permanent residency and/or temporary residency status to West Bank/Gaza Palestinians married to Israeli citizens and denies citizenship to children born to an Israeli citizen and resident of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Everyone of 14 years and older is considered an adult and cannot receive legal status under the family reunification provision (see also Citizenship and Entry Law and Law of Entry into Israel).
(also spelled Fateh, Arabic: Harakat At-Tahrir Al-Filistiniya = Palestinian Liberation Movement, with the first letters of the Arabic in reverse order giving Fatah = conquest) Political movement formally founded in Kuwait in 1959 by Yasser Arafat and associates (including Salah Khalaf, Khalil Al-Wazir, Mohammed Yousef Najjar, Kamal Adwan) and grown out of a clandestine organization established by Palestinian students in 1957 advocating armed struggle to liberate all of Palestine by Palestinians, while remaining independent of all Arab governments. Fatah is the largest and strongest PLO faction, and was headed by Arafat from its founding until his death on 11 November 2004. Fatah began as a network of underground cells, but reorganized with a Central Committee in 1963 and took control of the PLO as the largest single bloc at the 5th PNC meeting in Cairo in 1969. It adopted the principle of political pluralism within the PLO and followed a guerrilla strategy (with its military wing Al-Assifa and squads operating underground in the OPT known as Fatah Hawks and Black Panthers) until 1972, when it formulated a new policy putting guerrilla warfare as only one of various means of struggle. Fatah advocates a democratic, secular, multi-religious state, played a central role in the first Intifada, and was a member of the United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU). It also had a leading role in the second or Al-Aqsa Intifada, during which its military wing (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades) were formed. Fatah is currently headed by Mahmoud Abbas and represented in the PLO Executive Committee by three members. Fatah was badly defeated by Hamas in the January 2006 PLC elections, where it gained only 45 seats out of the 132 (as opposed to Hamas’ 72 seats) and following inter-Palestinian fighting and Hamas' military takeover of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, President Abbas dismissed the Hamas government and appointed a new Fatah-led Emergency Government. However, its authority has effectively been limited to the West Bank. On 12 October 2017, Fatah signed a reconciliation agreement with Hamas in Cairo. The implementation of the agreement reached a deadlock in early 2018, after a failed assassination attempt on then Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah during a visit to the Gaza Strip. As of 2019 the schism between both movements persists.
FATAH CENTRAL COMMITTEE
Fatah’s highest decision-making and executive body, which was established in 1963. The current Central Committee was elected during Fatah’s 7th General Convention in December 2016, and has 23 members. In February 2017, the Committee elected Mahmoud Al-Aloul as Fatah’s first ever Vice-Chairman, putting him first in line for the succession of the party’s Chairman Mahmoud Abbas.
Gathering of the Fatah leadership, which did not take place for 20 years until it was resumed and held from 4-9 August 2009 in Bethlehem to discuss the state of negotiations and issues such as resistance towards the Israeli occupation, Jerusalem, refugees, and Gaza and to agree on a political program. This 6th Convention was attended by over 2,500 participants, elected new members for its Central Committee and Revolutionary Council, and resolved that Fatah supports a two-state solution based on the borders of 1967 with Jerusalem as its capital, a fair negotiated solution to the refugee problem, armed struggle, and, in the case that negotiations will fail, struggle towards a binational state in all of historical Palestine and a unilateral declaration of a Palestinian state under occupation. At its 7th Convention in December 2016 in Ramallah, Mahmoud Abbas was re-elected as Chairman. In addition, the party’s leadership in the form of a new Central Committee and a new Revolutionary Council were elected. Internal opposition (such as Mohammed Dahlan’s Reform Bloc) was sidelined and excluded from participation.
Popular youth movement that emerged as a branch of Fatah during the first Intifada, where they mainly attacked Israeli army targets and dealt with killing Palestinian collaborators. They disappeared or were disbanded after the Oslo Accords, but re-emerged during the second Intifada as an offshoot of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade, where they were identified with Musa Arafat, then head of the PA's military intelligence. The Hawks held a convention in Rafah, Gaza, on 21 September 2004, attended by 3,000 members of Fatah, and announced its re-establishment as a separate entity within Fatah. The group’s activity has nearly vanished since 2004.
(Arabic: Fatah Al-Islam) Alleged Sunni Islamist break-away of the Damascus-based Fatah Uprising that was formed in late 2006. It is said to be inspired by Al-Qaeda and wants to bring religion back to the Palestinian cause. It acts mainly in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon with headquarters in the Nahr Al-Bared camp. The group, which is led by Shaker Al-Abassi, a Palestinian refugee from Jericho, took part in violent clashes with the Lebanese Army in May-June 2007. The original ranks of the group contained several members who had been trained by the US in Saudi Arabia in order to fight against the Soviets in the Soviet-Afghan War. The group also initially received US funding through the Lebanese government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora in order to weaken Syria. The US State Department classified the group as a terrorist organization on 9 August 2007, but it was not classified as such anymore starting from 24 November 2010. While factions of Fatah Islam remain, the existence and status of the group is unclear, especially after a large portion of their leadership was destroyed.
FATAH REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL
(1.) Second-ranking decision-making body of Fatah (after the Central Committee) with up to 148 members. It is the highest authority in Fatah when convened between two sessions of the General Convention. Its jurisdictions include following up and executing decisions of the General Convention, monitoring Fatah operations, including the work of the Central Committee, and military affairs.
(2.) Anti-Arafat faction (short: Fatah RC; also referred to as the Abu Nidal Group or Organization) established by Sabri Khalil Al-Banna (Abu Nidal) after it split from Fatah in 1974.
(Arabic: Fatah Al-Intifada; also referred to as Abu Musa Faction) Syrian-backed Palestinian splinter group founded by former Fatah Colonel Sa’ed Musa Muragha (Abu Musa) that broke away from mainstream Fatah in 1983, after blaming Arafat’s corruption for the ineffective response to Israel’s invasion of Lebanon. In 1985-88, the group took part in the ‘War of the Camps,’ in Lebanon. Fatah Uprising is based in Damascus, with guerrillas in Syria and Lebanon. It does not play a role in today's Palestinian politics and is not part of the PLO, opposing any political settlement with Israel.
(1.) Name applied to a section of southern Lebanon which was controlled by the Fatah-dominated PLO during its years in Lebanese exile (1970-1982) and which some claimed had virtually become a "state within a state."
(2.) More recently, the term is occasionally used in journalism in reference to the West Bank-Gaza split since 2007 with the West Bank considered as Fatahland as opposed to “Hamastan” (Gaza).
(plural fatawa) Islamic religious ruling or legal statement. It is issued by a recognized religious authority in Islam (e.g., a mufti, imam, sheikh or qadi) who pronounces a scholarly opinion on a matter of Islamic law, which the respective authority bases on evidence from Islamic sources. A fatwa is not necessarily "binding" on the faithful.
Proactive plan by former PA Prime Minister Salam Fayyad outlined in a booklet entitled "Palestine: Ending the Occupation, Establishing the State" (August 2009), which promoted building a Palestinian state by 2011. It included an assessment of institutional state-building needs (e.g., sewage, airport, schools, improved education and legal systems, new cities, affordable housing, better trained troops, better infrastructure and use of natural energy sources and water, ending the Palestinian economy's dependence on Israel) and set a two-year timetable for its implementation to build positive facts on the ground. The plan won praise from the UN and the West but drew criticism from Israel for its call to unilateral action in disputed territory (e.g., building in "Area C") and from Hamas and Islamic Jihad claiming the plan was serving Israeli interests. Under the Fayyad reform plan the Palestinian territory began to show positive economic growth rates and both the IMF and the World Bank praised the PA’s economic policies. However, Fayyad’s government was constrained by fiscal crisis triggered by growing domestic debt and dimi nishing international aid, the numerous restrictions imposed by Israel, and internal feuds that eventually led to his resignation in April 2013, at which time his reform plans also came to an end.
Term sometimes used with reference to the Palestinian reform plans and institution-/state-building agenda, introduced and promoted by former Prime Minister Salam Fayyad between 2009 and 2013 (see Fayyad Plan).
(Arabic: Fida’iyyun; singular: Fida’i) Palestinian fighters, often ready to sacrifice themselves in their struggle against Zionism and suppression and for a liberated Palestine. Inspired by guerrilla movements in Vietnam, Algeria and Latin America, Palestinian fedayeen grew from within the refugee population in the early 1950s, determined to intensify cross-border operations against Israelis and their allies. After the 1967 War, Palestinian fedayeen groups were united under the umbrella of the PLO.
FEDERAL STATE PLAN
Proposal outlined in the so-called Minority Plan that served as an alternative to the UN Partition Plan drawn up by the newly established UNSCOP mission that examined the situation in Palestine in early 1947. The mission’s resulting report included two proposals: A Proposal for a Federal State, which was submitted by India and backed by Iran and Yugoslavia, and the Partition Plan, supported by the majority of the UNSCOP-members. The Federal State Plan proposed a union of Arab and Jewish regions, with Jerusalem as the capital of the union, albeit located within the Arab part.
(also: Federal Plan) see United Arab Kingdom Plan
Peace proposal based on a version of the Fahd Plan (see above) adopted at the 12th Arab League summit in Fez, Morocco on 9 September 1982. The plan, which implicitly recognized Israel's right to exist, consisted of the following eight points: (1) Israeli withdrawal from all captured Arab territories, including East Jerusalem; (2) dismantlement of Israeli settlements in Arab territories; (3) assurance of freedom of worship for all religions; (4) recognition of the rights of the Palestinians to self-determination, to be implemented through their exclusive representative, the PLO; (5) a several-month transition period for Gaza and the West Bank under the auspices of the UN; (6) establishment of a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital; (7) a guarantee from the UN Security Council for peace and security of all states in the region; and (8) a guarantee from the UN Security Council for the implementation of the above-mentioned principles. The plan was endorsed by the PNC at its 16th session in Algiers on February 1983, while Israel and some PLO factions rejected it.
(Arabic: Al-Ittihad Ad-Dimuqrati Al-Filastini, with the first letters in reverse order giving FIDA; English: Palestinian Democratic Union) Reformist movement established in March 1990 as a splinter faction of the DFLP and headed by Yasser Abed Rabbo until 2002, who also represented FIDA in the PLO Executive Committee until his departure from the movement. He was replaced by Zahira Kamal who became the first female leader of a Palestinian political party. FIDA consists mainly of West Bank residents. It advocates democratization in the Palestinian arena, focuses on a party system that reflects political pluralism and democracy, and heavily supported the Oslo process. In the 1996 PLC election, FIDA secured one seat, while it ran in the 2006 PLC elections as part of the coalition “The Alternative”, which won two seats. It also ran in the 2017 local elections, where it won 7 seats (0.45% of the vote). Current General Secretary is Saleh Rafa’at.
FINAL STATUS ISSUES
Unresolved issues between the PA and Israel that are to be resolved in (and not before) the Final Status Negotiations, including: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security arrangements, borders, relations and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues of common interest (Oslo II Accord, Chapter 5, Article XXXI, 5).
FINAL STATUS NEGOTIATIONS
Provided for in the 1993 (Oslo) Declaration of Principles, to be the second part of a two-phase timetable. The first part involved a five-year "interim" or "transitional" period during which Israel was to gradually withdraw from Palestinian centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and transfer powers to the Palestinians. The negotiations were supposed to begin “as soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third year of the interim period”, i.e., in May 1996, and to cover “remaining issues, including: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security arrangements, borders, relations and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues of common interest.” On 4 May 1999, the interim phase ended with no permanent status agreement in sight. In the Sharm Esh-Sheikh Agreement of 4 September 1999, the beginning of final status talks was rescheduled for 13 September 1999, with an overall agreement to be reached by 13 September 2000. As of the end of 2019, final status negotiations have yet to take place.
Body formed in the early 1970s in Beirut by senior Fatah officers, initially as a personal security force for the PLO leadership headed by Yasser Arafat. The group soon became one of the PLO’s elite units serving as intelligence and counter-terrorist service, mainly against internal rivals and other Palestinian commanders and factions. Having played an important role in internal politics, they remained rather marginal with regard to the armed struggle against Israel. With the establishment of the PA in 1994, Force 17 was officially merged with the Presidential Security Force (Al-Amn Ar-Ri'asah), but in reality, the unit still existed apart from the official security forces as Arafat’s personal security as well as undertaking intelligence and counter-terrorism operations. The force was estimated at some 3,000 members, headed by Brig.-Gen. Faisal Abu Sharkh and based in Gaza. It was added to Israel’s list of "terrorist" entities in December 2001. There are a several narratives regarding how the unit got its name; one being that 1 and 7 were the last digits of the phone number of the unit’s first commander, Hassan Salameh, another states that reference is made to 17 Palestinians killed at the battle of Karameh in 1968, while a third claims the name derives from the location of the unit’s office in Beirut: 17 Faqahani Street. In December 2007, the Force was merged into the Presidential Guard and the National Security Forces.
FOREIGN GOVERNMENT FUNDING LAW
(formally: Law on Disclosure Requirements for Recipients of Support from a Foreign State Entity) Israeli law passed in 2011, which imposes invasive reporting requirements on NGOs, such as submitting and publishing quarterly reports on any funding received from foreign governments or publicly-funded foreign donors. Because Palestinian NGOs in Israel and all NGOs which promote Palestinian rights do not seek funding from Israeli governmental sources and have limited access to private funding, the law particularly targets them.
Israeli legislation that would see thousands of dunums of private Palestinian land seized and dozens of illegal Israeli outposts retroactively legalized (as regular settlements), and is seen as paving the way to an eventual annexation of the West Bank. The bill runs counter to four decades of Israeli High Court rulings against the use of private Palestinian property for settler homes. It allows the Israeli government to seize the private Palestinian land and hold it until there is a final resolution of the conflict. It passed a preliminary reading in the Knesset with 60:49 in December 2016 and a secondary reading with 60:52 in February 2017. Israel’s Attorney General Avihai Mandelblit has argued that the law is unconstitutional and refused to defend the state against the petition to the High Court of Justice by a consortium of 13 NGOs and groups that tried to strike down the legislation. On 20 August 2017, the state, in a response prepared by private lawyer Harel Arnon, asked the High Court to reject those legal challenges, saying the law was constitutional under Israeli law and calling it “a humane, proportional and reasonable response to the genuine distress of Israeli resident” (see also Regulation Law).
FOURTH GENEVA CONVENTION
International agreement, which was adopted at the close of a diplomatic conference for the establishment of international conventions for the protection of victims of war in Geneva on 12 August 1949 and entered into force on 21 October 1950. It contains standards for the treatment of civilians during times of war "in the hands" of an enemy and under any military occupation by a foreign power. To date, 194 countries have ratified the convention, including Israel. However, Israel refuses to recognize the applicability of the Geneva Convention to the OPT. Particularly relevant clauses in the Convention forbid degrading or dehumanizing treatment of occupied peoples and protection from coercion, corporal punishment, torture, the confiscation of personal property, and collective punishment. Further, the Fourth Geneva Convention forbids the transfer of part of the occupier’s population to the occupied territories and ensures freedom of movement, especially for medical personnel.
FRANCO ITALIAN SPANISH MIDDLE EAST PEACE PLAN (2006)
One of the first plans regarding the Jordan River waters. The plan, which was drafted in 1913 by the Ottoman Director of Works for Palestine, Georges Franghia, proposed using the Jordan River system for irrigation in the Jordan Valley and generation of electricity. The plan was sponsored by the Ottoman Empire, and floundered with its fall after World War I.
FREEDOM AND DIGNITY STRIKE
Hunger strike by over 1,500 Palestinian political prisoners that began on 17 April 2017 in protest of the conditions inside Israeli jails and lasted 40 days. Demands of the hunger strikers included access to education, proper medical care, an end to the practice of solitary confinement, regular visitation rights, and, most importantly, an end to administrative detention (imprisonment without charge and trial for renewable periods of six month). The strike mobilized the Palestinian streets and revived esteem for the prisoners’ movement with many solidarity hunger strikes, sit-ins, days of rage, and general strikes seen across the OPT. The hunger strike ended on 27 May after reaching a compromise with Israel for additional family visits.
FREEDOM AND INDEPENDENCE
party list that represented the small PLO faction Palestinian Arab Front (PAF) which was formed prior to the January 2006 PLC elections. It was led by Salim Al-Bardeni and received 4,398 votes (0.44%), which was far below the 2%-barrier to gain parliamentary representation.
FREEDOM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
Palestinian party list formed for the January 2006 PLC elections, representing the Popular Struggle Front, the Kafa’ (Enough) movement, and the Green Party, and headed by Ahmad Majdalany. The list received only 7,127 votes (0.72%) and failed to win a seat.
FRENCH PEACE INITIATIVE IN THE MIDDLE EAST
French call on the international community to help restart the peace process and focus talks on formulating parameters for a solution to the core issues of a final peace deal in line with a two-state solution. On 3 June 2016, France hosted a first international ministerial meeting in Paris, attended by 26 nations, excluding Israel and Palestinians, which ended with a vague call to work on a package of economic and security incentives and hold a Mideast Peace Summit later the year. In November 2016, Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu announced that his government would not participate in the French initiative. Nevertheless, over 40 foreign ministers and senior diplomats from 75 countries gathered for an international peace conference on 15 January 2017 in Paris, which ended with a statement condemning settlements. Neither Israelis nor Palestinians participated. While Fatah had endorsed the summit, other Palestinian factions were opposed saying no breakthrough is expected from such an event.
(formally: Non-paper on the Revival of a Dynamic of Peace in the Middle East) Mideast peace plan for a European Initiative, introduced by France in February 2002, which involved two the “inseparable issues” elections and statehood. The plan proposed holding new elections in Palestine as a means for the Palestinian people to express themselves through voting rather than violence and to legitimize the PA, followed by the declaration of an independent Palestinian state – without exact borders for the time being – and international recognition of the state as a starting point for resuming final status negotiations between two equal partners on the basis of UN Resolutions 242 and 338.
(English: courage, chivalry or manliness) Term originally referring to specific virtues – courage, manliness, chivalry, generosity, truth, honor, self-reliance, altruism. Derived from fata’ (young man), Futuwwa became a symbol of rebelling against all evil and striving for sincere servanthood to God. The name was used by informal associations of young men who claimed to promote these values and by (paramilitary) Arab youth organizations. In the Palestinian context, Futuwwa was a paramilitary youth movement founded in 1935 and associated with the Arab Party led by Jamal Husseini.
Pro-annexationist plan, drafted by Israeli Minister Yisrael Galili, outlining the government’s proposed policy in the OPT from 1973-77. It was adopted by the Labor Party in September 1973 and included plans for the development of the economy (i.e., infrastructure and service sector in the Palestinian territories as well as their economic ties with Israel and local government), the continuation of the “open bridges policy” with Jordan, a permanent resettlement scheme for refugees in the Gaza Strip, and the encouragement of settlement construction in the West Bank (especially the Jerusalem and Jordan Valley areas) and Golan Heights.
GAZA AGREEMENT (Fatah-Hamas)
Reconciliation deal signed in Gaza City on 23 April 2014 by Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh and a PLO delegation dispatched by President Mahmoud Abbas with the prime goal of forming a national unity government within five weeks, to be followed by general elections in December. Israel reacted with the announcement that it would halt peace talks with the Palestinians and employ other sanctions. The US expressed concern that the agreement "could seriously complicate" negotiations, while the EU welcomed it but stressed that the priority remained peace talks with Israel. The agreement resulted in a national unity government from 2 June 2014 to 17 June 2015 under President Mahmoud Abbas.
GAZA AND BETHLEHEM FIRST PLAN
Proposal put forth in August 2002 by then-Prime Minister Ariel Sharon calling for the phased withdrawal of Israeli forces from those West Bank and Gaza Strip areas that were granted self-rule under the 1994-95 Oslo Accords (starting with Gaza and Bethlehem) in return for PA action to curb violence. The basis of the plan, which was also an attempt to end the “re-occupation” of the Palestinian territories during Operation “Defensive Shield”, was a step-by-step implementation, which was predicated on reductions of “terror” and violence in the Gaza Strip and Bethlehem. The plan was approved by Israel and the Palestinians but the Sharon Government retreated from it soon after, saying it sought to solve the issue of Gaza first.
Land, air and sea blockade imposed on the Gaza Strip by Israel since mid-2007 following the Hamas takeover of Gaza. On the grounds of “security reasons”, massive movement restrictions have been implemented – enforced with the help of Egypt and the support of the US – to keep nearly 2 million Gaza residents “locked in”. This has led to a severe socioeconomic and humanitarian crisis in the over-populated Strip.
GAZA BORDER PROTESTS
(2018) see Great March of Return
GAZA FREEDOM FLOTILLA / FLOTILLA RAID
International initiative that tried to break the naval blockade of the Gaza Strip in May 2010 and had a fatal ending. In an attempt to reach the Gaza Strip by sea, the Free Gaza Movement and the Turkish Foundation for Human Rights and Freedoms and Humanitarian Relief (IHH) organized a flotilla consisting of eight ships carrying both activists and goods (medicine, construction materials etc.). On 31 May 2010, Israeli forces intercepted the flotilla and boarded six of the ships in international waters; in the ensuing clashes nine activists were killed. The Israeli raid led to international condemnation and seriously strained Israeli- Turkish relations.
GAZA JERICHO AUTONOMY AGREEMENT
(also: Cairo or Oslo Agreement or Accord or Gaza-Jericho First Agreement) Agreement signed by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat on 4 May 1994 in Cairo, which was the second stage in the process begun with the DOP in September 1993. It outlined the first stage of Palestinian autonomy – in some 60% of Gaza and a 65 km2 area in and around Jericho – including Israeli redeployment and the establishment of a Palestinian authority as the governing body in the evacuated territories. As part of the agreement, Israeli military forces were to withdraw from the areas of Gaza and Jericho, in coordination with a newly established Joint Israeli-Palestinian Security Coordination and Cooperation Committee. Israeli forces were to be redeployed to specified areas only, such as the Military Installation Area along the Egyptian border and Israeli settlements. In addition, a Palestinian police force was set up in those areas and powers within five civilian spheres were transferred to the Palestinians (see Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities). Israel remained in control of the settlements, military locations, and security matters. The stipulated five-year interim period ended on 4 May 1999 and triggered a heated debate among the Palestinians as to whether to declare a Palestinian state unilaterally.
GAZA MARINE GAS FIELD
Offshore gas field located under Palestinian territorial waters some 30-36 km off the Gaza Strip coast which was (together with the smaller Border Gas Field) discovered in 1998. Total gas reserves are estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic feet, enough to cover needs in Gaza and the West Bank for 15 years. Although the gas fields are considered a partial solution to the ongoing power shortages, extraction by the PA has not yet started, due to ongoing political disputes. The World Bank estimates that the development of the Marine reservoir is likely to yield US$2.7 billion in royalties for the PA.
GAZA RETURN MARCH
Coastal region on the Mediterranean Sea, adjoining Egypt and Israel, 45 km long and 5-12 km in width, and covering an area of approximately 365 km2. It is inhabited by some 2 million Palestinians, mostly refugees. The area was part of the British Mandate for Palestine from 1917 to 1948, was passed over to Egyptian control in 1949, and has been occupied by Israel since the War of 1967. Following the evacuation of all Israeli settlers from the Gaza Strip under Sharon's 2005 unilateral disengagement plan and Hamas' complete takeover of the territory in June 2007, Israel declared the entire Gaza Strip a "hostile entity". Israel currently retains control of all land, air and sea access, and reserves the right to prevent the PA from re-opening its airport or building a seaport. After the six-month truce between Hamas and Israel ended in December 2008, Israel initiated the Gaza War (“Operation Cast Lead”) on 27 December 2008, which lasted 22 days and left over 1,300 Palestinians dead and over 5,000 wounded, a large percentage of whom were civilians. Gaza was also under attack during the 2012 “Operation Pillar of Defense” (167 Palestinians dead) and the 2014 “Operation Protective Edge” (1,462 Palestinians dead).
GENERAL INTELLIGENCE SERVICE
(Palestinian Authority) Palestinian security force created after the Oslo Accords, partially from the Palestinian Liberation Army, which reports directly to the President, who also appoints its head. It is in charge of security operations beyond the borders of the PA, including external intelligence, counterespionage, and liaison with foreign intelligence. It is also responsible for thwarting terror attacks in the West Bank and works covertly in the Israeli-controlled Areas B and C, mainly arresting people who are then interrogated in Area A. The GIS has an estimated 3,500 troops and is headed by Maj.-Gen. Majid Faraj since 2009.
GENERAL SECURITY SERVICES
(Israel) see Shin Bet
Form of non-violent protest in which Palestinians close shops and businesses, workers do not go to their jobs in Israel, and/or public and private transport stays off the roads. Palestinians have regularly employed general strikes – during the Mandate period in protest of the British authorities (peaking in the 1936 Great Revolt) and later against Israeli occupation, most notably during the first Intifada (1987-1993).
Well-established PLO-affiliated popular organizations, often predating the PLO, that represent important sectors of Palestinian society worldwide. There are General Unions of Palestinian Students, Women, Jurists, Workers, Teachers, Doctors, Writers and Journalists, Engineers, Economists, Artists, and Farmers.
also: Switzerland/Swiss Proposal or Document or Beilin-Abed Rabbo Plan; officially: Draft Permanent Status Agreement) Alternative, unofficial peace initiative drafted by Israeli and Palestinian politicians and activists, led by Yossi Beilin and Yasser Abed Rabbo, sponsored by Switzerland, and signed in Aqaba on 12 October 2003. The Geneva Accord was created in an effort to formulate a complete final status agreement, in contrast to then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's approach of long-term interim agreements, and was officially launched at a ceremony in Geneva on 1 December 2003. The Israeli government condemned the plan as undermining its own policies while the PA supported it. Members of the initiative on the Israeli side included Haim Oron, Amram Mitzna, Avraham Burg, Nehama Ronen, Yuli Tamir, Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, as well as Brig.-Gen. Giora Inbar, Brig.-Gen. Shlomo Brom, authors Amos Oz and David Grossman, David Kimche, Prof. Arie Arnon, and Dr. Menachem Klein. Members on the Palestinian side included Yasser Abed Rabbo, Mohammed Al-Hourani, Nabil Qassis, Hisham Abdel Razzeq, Kadoura Fares, Jamal Zaqout, Saman Khouri, Zuheir Al-Manasrah, Radi Jamil Jarai, Ibrahim Mohammed Khrishi, Samih Karakra, Basel Jaber, and Nazmi Al-Ju'beh. The main points of the detailed plan included:
- Palestinians will concede the right of return.
- Palestinians will recognize Israel as the state of the Jewish people.
- Israel will withdraw to the 1967 borders, except for certain territorial exchanges.
- Jerusalem will be divided with Arab parts of East Jerusalem becoming part of the Palestinian state, and Jewish settlements, as well as the West Bank suburbs of Ma'ale Adumim, Givat Ze'ev, and the Gush Etzion settlements becoming part of Israel.
- Haram Ash-Sharif will be Palestinian, but an international force will ensure freedom of access for visitors of all faiths. Archaeological digs will be forbidden. The Western Wall will remain under Jewish sovereignty.
- The Ariel, Efrat, and Har Homa settlements will be part of the Palestinian state, and Israel will also transfer parts of the Negev adjacent to Gaza in exchange for the parts of the West Bank it will receive.
- Palestinians will pledge to prevent terror and incitement and disarm all militias. Their state will be demilitarized. An international force will supervise the border crossings.
The agreement will replace all, and in some cases will be regarded as fulfillment of, UN resolutions and previous agreements that pertain to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Geneva Accord resulted in the establishment of two cooperating NGOs: Heskem on the Israeli side and the Palestine Peace Coalition on the Palestinian. Both are active in promoting negotiations and searching for compromises.
(1.) Conference for Peace in the Middle East held in December 1973 in Geneva, attended by Egypt, Israel, the US, the USSR, Jordan, and the UN Secretary-General. It created working groups but achieved no further results.
(2.) A UN General Assembly-initiated international conference resulting from the acknowledgment that separate solutions like Camp David (1978) did not solve much and that the exclusion of Palestinian representatives would not lead to a fair and lasting peaceful solution. It convened from 23 August to 7 September 1983 in Geneva and was attended by 137 states, but was boycotted by Israel and the US. Ultimately, the Geneva Declaration was adopted, calling for a peace conference under the auspices of the UN with full participation, on equal footing, of all parties connected to the conflict, including the PLO, US, USSR, and others. This declaration was endorsed by the UN General Assembly in Resolution 38/58C on 13 December 1983.
Standards of international law for humanitarian concerns which were formulated in four treaties in Geneva. The First Convention followed the foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863 and adopted the “Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field” in 1864. All four conventions were last revised and ratified in 1949 as follows: (1) First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (first adopted in 1864); (2) Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea (first adopted in 1906); (3) Third Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (first adopted in 1929), and (4) Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (first adopted in 1949) (see also Fourth Geneva Convention).
European peace initiative, introduced by Germany in April 2002, suggesting a referendum asking the Palestinian population about their willingness to recognize Israel and normalize relations in return for a withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian territory. Further, the plan included a ceasefire followed by an early declaration of a Palestinian state, an end to Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza, phased talks on tricky issues such as Israel's borders and the status of Jerusalem, and provided for international peacekeepers to patrol a buffer zone between Israel and Palestinian areas.
(English: Bridge) (1.) Center-right Israeli party formed in 1996 as a breakaway from the Likud by former Likud MK and Foreign Minister David Levy. It ran in coalition with Likud in the 1996 elections and joined One Israel in the 1999 elections. Gesher focused on the socio-economic problems of immigrants from North Africa. In 2003, it merged back into the Likud and dissolved.
(2.) New party launched in December 2018 by independent MK Orly Levy-Abekasis (who had broken away from Lieberman’s Yisrael Beiteinu in May 2016 and is the daughter of David Levy who had formed the other Gesher party in 1996). While running on a social platform, the party is hard to classify politically. The party competed in the April 2019 elections, but did not succeed in winning any seats. In the September 2019 elections, it ran on a joint list together with Labor, winning six seats.
see Jordan Valley
(also: HaGihon) Israeli company also known as the Jerusalem Area's Water and Wastewater Utility, which was founded in 1996 by the Israeli Jerusalem Municipality and currently provides water, sewage and drainage services for some one million people in the Greater Jerusalem area. Since 2003, Gihon operates as an independent corporation in accordance with Jerusalem development and expansion plans, constructing, inter alia, industrial sewage treatment systems and pumping facilities. According to ACRI, only 59% of the Palestinians in East Jerusalem are officially connected to the Gihon Corporation’s water infrastructure.
(also: Maryam’s Spring or the Spring of the Virgin) Karstic spring that is located on the Old City’s eastern slope before and whose waters flow into the adjacent Wadi Nar (Kidron Valley). It constituted a main freshwater source of the city from its first beginnings. According to Muslim tradition, the waters of the Gihon Spring are holy like the Zamzam Spring in Mecca. Pilgrims returning from the hajj used to go to the spring and then pray at Al-Aqsa Mosque. There was also a tradition among the residents of Silwan of using and bathing in the springs’ water before weddings, on holy days, and other occasions. The Gihon Spring is also sacred to Christians as it is identified with the spring used by Mary, the mother of Jesus. In the 1990s, the Israeli Nature and Parks Authority together with the Elad settler group took over the spring and began to charge entry fees to it, only allowing the settlers of “City of David” and their associates to enter it freely and without charge.
GIVATI PARKING LOT
Area at the southern side of the Old City walls, on the northern entrance of Silwan, adjacent to the Israeli ‘City of David’ Visitors Center, which was one of the only remaining open areas for the residents of Silwan, but has since 2003 been subject to archeological digging under the auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority and funded by the Elad settler organization “for the benefit of the City of David archeological park”. In 2012, Elad announced plans to build a multiple story building on part of the site, known as the Kedem Compound, to include inter alia a museum, a visitors’ center, and coffee shop. Palestinians have harshly criticized these plans as they will create a single tourist zone under settler and Israeli governmental control at the expense of their direct connection to the Old City and adjacent neighborhoods.
Rocky plateau in south-western Syria, stretching over some 1,800 km2 and overlooking northern Israel, thus of military and strategic importance. The area is also a key source of water as rainwater from the Golan's catchment feeds into the Jordan River. Israel captured 1,200 km2 of the region from Syria in the 1967 Six-Day War. It is estimated that some 120,000 Syrian residents fled or were expelled from the area during the war and never returned. An estimated 340 farms and villages were destroyed and replaced by Jewish settlements. A Syrian attempt to regain the Golan Heights during the Yom Kippur War (1973) failed. In December 1981, Israel unilaterally and illegally annexed the Golan Heights an since claims its “right” to retain the Golan based on UN Resolution 242 calling for "safe and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force.” However, the international community rejects those claims and regards the area as occupied Syrian territory. Syria wants to secure the return of the Golan Heights as part of any future peace deal. Currently, there are an estimated 23,000 settlers living in 34 Israeli settlements on the occupied Golan Heights. About 25,000 Syrians still live in the northernmost area, mainly members of the Druze community. On 25 March 2019, US President Donald Trump proclaimed the US’ recognition of the Golan Heights as part of the State of Israel. No other country recognizes Israeli sovereignty over territory.
Report of the UN Fact Finding Mission, appointed in April 2009 by the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and headed by South-African jurist Richard Goldstone, to investigate the events of Israel's offensive in the Gaza Strip in December 2008/January 2009. The report was presented to the UNHRC in Geneva on 29 September 2009, urging the Council and the international community as a whole to put an end to impunity for violations of international law in Israel and the OPT, and accusing both Israel and Hamas of war crimes, though clearly stating that Israel had intentionally targeted civilian sites during the fighting. The report’s findings echoed those of other international human rights and humanitarian organizations. The government of President Abbas caused an outrage when it initially decided in October 2009 – due to Israeli and US pressure – to withdraw its support for a resolution at the UNHRC. Nevertheless, the UNHRC voted on 16 October with 25 to 6 (with 11 abstentions and 5 absent) in favor of a resolution endorsing war crimes charges as spelled out in the Goldstone Report. On 5 November 2009, the UN General Assembly adopted, following a vote of 114 of 18 (44 abstaining), a resolution based on the Goldstone Report, calling on the UN Secretary-General to transmit the report to the UN Security Council which has powers to refer the situation in Gaza to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. On 1 April 2011, after being heavily pressured, Goldstone retracted his claim that it was Israeli government policy to deliberately target citizens. The other authors of the report have rejected Goldstone's reassessment.
(Arabic: muhafazat) Administrative unit/district in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In 1995, following the arrival of the PA, the OPT were divided into 16 governorates (11 in the West Bank: Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarem, Qalqilya, Salfit, Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem, Jericho, Bethlehem, and Hebron, and five in the Gaza Strip: Jabalia, Gaza City, Deir Al-Balah, Khan Younis, and Rafah). Each of these is headed by a governor, appointed by the President. The governorates are subordinate to the Ministry of Local Government and cooperate with the mayors and heads of village councils in their respective districts.
(also: Katyusha) Standard military artillery weapon originally produced in the former Soviet bloc. Palestinian militant groups in Gaza use 122-mm rockets, but unlike Hizbullah, not from truck-based launchers. The rockets launched from Gaza have a range of about 40 km, and can apparently reach the cities of Beer Sheva, Ashdod, Gedera, Ofakim, and Gan Yavne in Israel.
GRASSROOTS INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION FOR THE PALESTINIAN PEOPLE (GIPP)
International movement launched in 2001 with the main objective of granting a form of protection to the Palestinian people. GIPP organized solidarity actions and coordinated the activities of international activists who came to Palestine to express solidarity with the Palestinians, protected them from Israeli aggression, and sent messages and reports on the situation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the international community. Missions and delegations were organized in cooperation with Palestinian, European, American, and church partners. In recent years, the GIPP has shown no sign of activity and is believed to have been absorbed by other solidarity movements and groups.
GREAT MARCH OF RETURN
Campaign launched by civil society activists in Gaza as a non-violent form of protest which called for the Palestinian refugees' right of return to their villages and homes from which they had been expelled or fled from in order to make way for present-day Israel. The campaign also called for an end to the over a decade-long blockade imposed on the Gaza Strip. The campaign began on 30 March 2018 – the anniversary of Land Day – initially planned for six weeks to culminate in a Nakba Day anniversary march, and included protest camps set up near the border fence with Israel and walks towards the fence, attended by thousands of people. Israel claimed that Hamas was behind the protests and responded with indiscriminate force, killing 17 Palestinians and injuring over 1,400 on the first day of protest alone. The bloodiest day of protest was the Great March of Return on the 70th anniversary of Nakba Day on 15 May 2018, which coincided with the opening of the US Embassy in Jerusalem and left at least 60 Palestinians killed and over 1,000 injured. Protests continued every Friday, and according to UN OCHA, by the end of 2018, 180 Gazans were killed and over 23,000 injured in the context of the Great Return March, including medical and press personnel; 57 of the dead and some 7,000 of the injured were children. Israel's use of deadly force was condemned by UN General Assembly Resolution ES10/ L.23 on 13 June 2018 as well as by numerous human rights organizations. Protest marches continued during 2019 but were held less frequent towards the end of the year.
(also: Great Rebellion) Widespread uprising that emerged from Arab-Jewish clashes throughout Palestine from April to October 1936. The Great Revolt involved the establishment of National Committees and an Arab General Strike (April-October 1936) in support of three basic demands: (1) an end to Jewish immigration, (2) an end to Jewish land sales, and (3) establishment of an Arab national government. As part of the strike, the National Committees adopted the slogan “no taxation without representation”, refusing to pay taxes until the British fulfilled their demands. In response to the riots, the British declared the Arab Higher Committee illegal. A second phase of the Great Revolt began in autumn 1937, triggered by the partition plan issued in the Royal (Peel) Commission report. On 1 October 1937, the British government dissolved the Arab Higher Committee and all National Committees, arrested numerous members, deporting five of them to the Seychelles, and officially stripped Haj Amin Al-Husseini of his positions as Chairman of the Waqf and President of the Supreme Muslim Council. The second Great Rebellion lasted until 1939 and ended with the 1939 British White Paper.
Term most commonly used to define the land encompassed by the state of Israel and the OPT. Other definitions include the territory of the former British Mandate of Palestine, either in the 1923 or 1948 borders, or the Biblical definitions of the 'Land of Israel' (Eretz Yisrael). The term 'Land of Israel' is found in the charters of both the Likud and Kadima parties, describing the right of the state of Israel and Jews to all of present day Israel and the OPT.
Reference to an area that extends beyond the Green Line into the West Bank and encompasses roughly a 20-km radius around the Old City. This area is home to around 600,000 Israelis and 600,000 Palestinians, and comprises two overlapping metropolitan areas – West Jerusalem and the Israeli built-up areas located inside and on the periphery of East Jerusalem; and the traditionally Palestinian East Jerusalem, including its adjacent neighborhoods on the edges of Israel’s Jerusalem municipal borders. Greater Jerusalem also includes an outer ring of 20 Israeli settlements extending Jerusalem far beyond the city's municipal boundaries into the West Bank.
GREATER JERUSALEM BILL
(also: Greater Jerusalem Law or ‘Jerusalem and Its Daughters’ Bill) Proposed legislation, authored by MK Yoav Kisch (Likud) in 2017, that would include 19 illegal West Bank settlements (“daughter municipalities” – all located in the settlement blocs of Ma’ale Adumim, Givat Zeev, Beitar Illit and Gush Etzion) under the jurisdiction of the Jerusalem Municipality as “sub-municipalities”, thus adding some 150,000 Jewish settlers to the city’s municipality and consolidating its Jewish dominance. Separately, the bill would downgrade three Palestinian neighborhoods located beyond the Separation Barrier, which have not received proper municipal services since the Separation Barrier’s construction and which are home to an equal number of people (Kufr Aqab, Shu’fat and Anata), and make them “sub-municipalities” of the city. However, due to US pressure Prime Minister Netanyahu postponed an initial vote on the bill, scheduled for late October 2017, indefinitely. If passed into law, it would not only change the demographic balance in Jerusalem in favor of a Jewish majority, but also de facto annex of some of the largest West Bank settlements to the city.
Areas zoned by Israeli municipal authorities for open space in which no construction is allowed, allegedly in order to maintain a minimum of greenery in the city or under related pretexts, such as preservation of views, environmental protection, etc. However, land plots designated as “Green Areas” often serve as Jewish land reserves and block Palestinian development. Examples of the rezoning of formerly designated “Green Areas” to allow for Jewish building are Har Homa built on Jabal Abu Ghneim and Ramat Shlomo built on Shu’fat land.
Term used following Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza in 1967 to refer to the post-1948 War cease-fire line (proper name is 1949 Armistice Line. It is the border separating pre-1967 Israel from the OPT (thus it is also often referred to as the "pre-1967 borders" or the "1967 borders"). The demarcation line (laid down in the Armistice Agreements of 1949) is an internationally recognized border, but it is important to note that Israel has never specified the boundaries of its state. The sections of the Green Line that delineate the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip run through heavily populated regions.
GROUP OF 77
Body originally established by 77 developing countries represented at the first UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva on 15 June 1964. The purpose of the group was to allow for the formulation of common positions in advance of plenary UNCTAD meetings. Now with 134 members, the group, of which Palestine is a full member, is the largest intergovernmental organization of developing states in the UN. The Group of 77 concentrates on developing common negotiation positions on trade and development and on promoting collective economic interests as well as South-South cooperation for development. In July 2018, the Asian Group at the UN unanimously endorsed Palestine to be the next chair for the Group of 77, starting in January 2019. On 15 October 2018, the UN General Assembly formally voted in favor of Palestine as head of the G77 and China, thereby allowing it to act more like a full UN member state during meetings in 2019.
(English: Bloc of the Faithful) Israeli extra-parliamentary right-wing religious lobby group which was founded in the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War in the spring of 1974, based on beliefs ideologically rooted in the teachings of Rabbi Abraham Kook and his son, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook. Supporters believe the “Land of Israel” is the fulfillment of the Zionist dream and that the coming of the messiah can be hastened through Jewish settlement on land they believe God has allotted for Jews. Therefore, they oppose the return of territory conquered by Israel in 1967 and their major activity has been to initiate new settlements. Since 1967, Gush Emunim is the single most active settlement movement in the OPT, with over half of all settlements in the West Bank affiliated with its various administrative, ideological and pedagogic divisions. Since the Oslo process, Gush Emunim exists mainly in the form of ethnic-nationalist rhetoric, which has gained prominence in the political discourse as people query the ‘Jewish’ character of the state.
(also: Etzion Bloc) Group of 22 illegal Jewish settlements located in the West Bank on a 60 km2 area between Jerusalem and Hebron and housing over 75,000 settlers. Currently, the following settlements form the bloc: Alon Shvut, Bat Ayin, Beitar Illit, Efrat, Elazar, Gevaot, Har Gilo, Ibei HaNahal, Karmei Tzur, Kedar, Kfar Eldad, Kfar Etzion, Maale Amos, Maale Rehav'am, Metzad, Migdal Oz, Neve Daniel, Nokdim, Pnei Kedem, Rosh Tzurim, Sde Boaz, Tekoa.
English: Harvest Bloc) Bloc of 16 Jewish settlements (Bedolah, Bnei Atzmon, Gadid, Gan Or, Ganei Tal, Kfar Darom, Kfar Yam, Kerem Atzmona, Morag, Neve Dekalim, Netzer Hazani, Pe’at Sade, Katif, Rafiah Yam, Shirat HaYam, Selav, and Tel Katifa) with a total population of some 8,000 settlers that existed along the southern Gaza coastline until August 2005, when they were removed and most of their infrastructure was destroyed as part of then Prime Minister Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan.
(English: Peace Bloc) Extra-parliamentary, independent Israeli organization founded by the late Uri Avnery and others in 1993, when it became apparent that all the older peace groups in Israel were either unable or unwilling to oppose the repressive measures introduced by the new Labor government headed by Yitzhak Rabin. Gush Shalom plays a leading role in determining the agenda of the peace forces in Israel and influencing Israeli public opinion with regard to peace and reconciliation with the Palestinian people. Its goals are based on principles such as ending the occupation, the Palestinian right to establish an independent and sovereign state, reinstating the pre-1967 "Green Line" as border, recognizing in principle the right of return of the Palestinian refugees, and establishing Jerusalem as the capital of the two states, with East Jerusalem serving as the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
H1 and H2
see Hebron Agreement
(English: Jewish Home) Israeli religious-Zionist, right-wing party that was formed following a merger between the National Religious Party and the National Union in 2008. It was led by Naftali Bennett and Ayelet Shaked until they left to found a new party (‘The New Right’) prior to the 2019 elections. After appointing Rafi Peretz as its new chairman, the party decided to extend its cooperation with the National Union, and to run also with far right Otzma Yehudit under the Union of Right-Wing Parties, which won 5 seats in the April 2019 and 4 seats in September 2019 elections.
(Hebrew acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom uLeShivion; English: The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality) Alliance of the Israeli Communist Party and other Arab and Jewish political groups, which has undergone numerous transformations in its history. The Jewish-Arab Leftist movement, founded in 1977 when the Rakah Party joined with several non-parliamentary groups, including members of the Black Panthers and other left-wing non-communist groups, stresses social justice and equality, as well as recognition and cultural integration of the Palestinian minority. It supports a two-state solution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, and maintains that all Israeli settlements outside the pre-1967 borders are illegal and should be evacuated, including East Jerusalem. Current leader is Ayman Odeh. At present, Hadash has five members, as part of the Joint List, in the 120-seat Knesset. In the April 2019 elections, Hadash got 4 seats (in alliance with the Balad party) and in the September 2019 elections 5 seats (in alliance with Ta’al).
(English: news, statement, narrative or story) Spoken traditions attributed to the Prophet Mohammed, i.e., his deeds, sayings, and tacit approvals, which are revered and received in Islam as a major source for implementing and explaining religious law and moral guidance.
(English: Defense) Clandestine Jewish paramilitary organization set up in June 1920 by the Labor Zionist Achdut Ha-Avoda party to combat the attacks of Palestinians on Jewish settlements. The Haganah was outlawed by the British authorities but remained active during the British Mandate years (1920-1948), after which it became the nucleus of the Israeli army. The Haganah was under the authority of the Jewish trade union movement Histadrut from late 1920 until its split in April 1931 over whether the Histradut or the Jewish Agency should rule the body. The split off became known as Irgun Zvei Le'umi (also named Irgun B or Haganah Le'umit). Haganah’s activities were moderate by contrast with more extreme Zionist militias (e.g., Irgun ZviLeumi or Stern Gang), but it turned to terrorism after World War II when the British refused to permit unlimited Jewish immigration to Palestine. Among the well-known Haganah commanders that later entered Israeli politics are Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, and Yisrael Galili.
1.) Attack by Palmach forces on 28 February 1948, blowing up two houses and a garage and firing into the Arab neighborhoods of Haifa, killing at least 30 people, including women and children. Israeli historian Benny Morris’s sources state that “dozens” were killed, in addition to a militia leader and the deputy head of the National Bank and that the attack came following an attack on a Jewish bus in which four were wounded.
(2.) Attack on Haifa (also known as “Battle of Haifa”) by Zionist paramilitaries (known by Jewish forces as Operation ‘Bi’ur Hametz’) which took place on 21-22 April 1948, and, according to Morris, was designed to break Arab morale and discourage resistance. Though not the direct aim of the attack or even an expectation, approximately 15,000 Arab residents evacuated Haifa. According to some sources, Jewish forces occupied homes, public buildings, and streets, killing 100-300 Arabs, many of whom while fleeing towards the harbor to escape to Akko by boat.
(3.) Sometimes also an attack by Zionist paramilitaries from the Al-Hadar neighborhood, located at the top of Al-Abbas Street in Haifa, rolling down a barrel filled with explosives on 28 January 1949, which destroyed homes, killed 20 Palestinians and wounded dozens others, is referred to as “Haifa Massacre”.
HAIFA OIL REFINERY MASSACRE
Attack on 30 December 1947 when members of the Irgun threw a number of grenades at a crowd of about 100 Arab day-laborers who had gathered outside the main gate of the then British-owned Haifa Oil Refinery to look for work, killing six and wounding between 42 and 505, according to accounts recorded by Israeli historians Ilan Pappé and Benny Morris, respectively. During the ensuing clashes, over 30 Jews were killed. According to Morris, Jewish forces retaliated in the following days by raiding the villages where many of the Arab refinery workers lived with orders to kill “maximum adult males” (see also Balad Ash-Sheikh Massacre).
(also Haj or Hadj) Annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which forms one of the five pillars of Islam (i.e., an obligation that must be carried out at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime if health and financial situation permit). The pilgrimage occurs from the 7th to 10th day of the 12th month of the Islamic calendar (Dhu al-Hijjah) and re-enacts the actions of the Prophet Mohammed in his "farewell pilgrimage" in 632 AD. Each year, around 2 million Muslims from all over the world gather in Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage. Those who have performed the Hajj receive the title Hajj (female: Hajjeh).
(also Halacha; adjective: halachic; plural: halakhot; English: the way to go) Normative Jewish religious law, as well as customs and traditions, practice, or rite established or ratified by authoritative rabbinic jurists and teachers. Halakha guides not only religious but numerous other aspects of day-to-day life. Conservative Jews adhere to halakha to varying degrees while Reform Jews largely disregard it. Settler rabbis and other extremist Jewish religious leaders often issue rulings, each on his own judgment, which state laws sometimes commanding soldiers to disobey orders, and even commanding the killing of innocent Palestinian civilians if this is considered to further Jewish interest.
HALUTZA/HALUZA SANDS or DUNES
Uninhabited arid 150-km2 area in the northwestern Negev, southeast of the Gaza Strip, which was suggested by then-Prime Minister Ehud Barak to be ceded in a land-swap in return for keeping some settlements in the West Bank. Palestinian negotiators rejected the Halutza area as the centerpiece of the land swap, noting that its potential for agricultural development and human settlement appeared highly constrained and therefore of less value than the land that Israel wants to annex in the West Bank. In 2001, then Prime Minister Ariel Sharon initiated plans for three new settlements in the area in an effort to foil any future attempt to transfer the area to Palestinian control as part of a final peace settlement. Following the 2005 disengagement from Gaza, evacuees from Gush Katif, Atzmona and Netzarim settlements began building permanent residences in communities located in the Halutza Sands area. Due to its historic importance – the city was once part of the Nabataean Incense Route – UNESCO declared Halutza (along with the other Nabatean cities of Avdat, Mamshit, Shivta) a World Heritage Site.
(English: Zeal; Abbreviation of the Arabic Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiyya; English: Islamic Resistance Movement) Political movement grown out of religious association. Hamas served as the Muslim Brotherhood’s link to the first Intifada and emerged shortly after the outbreak of the Intifada in January 1988. Its formation and development was tolerated, if not encouraged, by Israel as an alternative or counterforce to the PLO. The spiritual leader and founding father of Hamas is Sheikh Ahmad Yassin (assassinated by Israel on 22 March 2004). Other founding leaders include Fattah Dukhan, Mohammed Shama’a, Dr. Ibrahim Al-Yazuri, Issa An-Najjar, Salah Shehadeh (assassinated in July 2002), and Abdul Aziz Rantisi (assassinated in April 2004). The Hamas Covenant, issued in August 1988, declared that all of Palestine is Islamic trust land and can never be surrendered to non-Muslims, and proclaimed jihad against Israel. Hamas advocates an Islamic state in all of historic Palestine and the application of Shar’ia Law. Hamas is not a member of the PLO and worked independently from the UNLU during the first Intifada, but does not seriously question the PLO’s role as representative of the Palestinian people at an international level. In 1989, Hamas agreed to abide by decisions of the PNC, but called for new elections to it in 1991. Hamas gained popularity through charitable efforts and the provision of educational and health services. The group has also been responsible for many attacks on Israeli targets (mostly carried out by its military wing, the Izz Eddin Al-Qassem Brigades) and is listed as a terrorist organization by the US and the EU. Hamas strongly opposes the Oslo Accords and belongs to the Alliance of Palestinian Forces, which is opposed to the peace process. It boycotted the Palestinian elections of January 1996, but ran in the second PLC elections in 2006 (as “Change and Reform” party), where it won a landslide victory (74 out of the 132 seats in the PLC), defeating Fatah. Subsequently, Hamas formed a new PA government with Ismail Haniyeh as Prime Minister. However, the newly formed unity government was widely boycotted by the international community. In June 2007, clashes with Fatah forces and supporters led to a near civil war in the Gaza Strip, in the course of which Hamas took control of Gaza, rejected by the Fatah-led PA. Despite an October 2017 Egyptian-mediated reconciliation agreement with Fatah, which should have lead to the PA’s gradual take-over of government institutions in Gaza, the situation on the ground did not change. As of 2019, the leader in exile was Khaled Masha’al, while locally, the leaders were Ismail Haniyeh (Head of the Hamas politburo) and Yahya Sinwar (head of Hamas in the Gaza Strip).
HAMAS CHARTER or COVENANT
Document first published in 1988 (English title: Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement), which outlines the identity, goals and opinions of the Hamas movement, and was widely seen as a radical anti-Israel manifesto in which Hamas declares jihad until all of Palestine is liberated. In May 2017, Hamas presented and published its new, revised covenant, which was more moderate, inter alia, by stating that it “considers the establishment of a fully sovereign and independent Palestinian state, with Jerusalem as its capital along the lines of 4 June 1967 (…)”. Thus, while not mentioning the name Israel, the document acknowledges another entity ruling the remaining territory (though stating that the Palestinian people have a right to the entire land of historic Palestine). In relation to accusations of Anti-Semitism, the new charter states: “Hamas affirms that its conflict is with the Zionist project not with the Jews because of their religion.” The revised covenant also abandoned the earlier stated ties to the Muslim Brotherhood.
(plural: hama’il; English: Clan) Kinship unit exercising important roles for social cohesion in the Arab World, particularly in rural areas. A hamula is a form of extended family, consisting of several family branches which claim a shared ancestry, linked through the father’s male line. Clans provide security, an important source of spouses, shared financial wellbeing, and more generally, a trusted network for all social occasions. Clan members are tied together by a code of honor (Mithaq Al-Sharaf), which is binding on all male members.
(also: Hannibal Tactic, Directive, or Protocol) Name of a controversial Israeli army order that is designed to prevent Israelis from being taken captive alive by enemy forces. It was drawn up by military officers in 1986 after the Israeli government had come under domestic pressure to release hundreds of enemy prisoners for the return of three captured soldiers. The directive allows troops to use heavy force when one of their own is abducted - even at the risk of killing the soldier. While it was supposed to have stopped after Israel withdrew from South Lebanon in May 2000, there is strong evidence that the procedure is still being used, including during Israel’s assaults on Gaza. Critics claim that the policy actually promotes the killing of captured soldiers to prevent the need for prisoner exchanges. In March 2018, Israel's state comptroller criticized the procedure, saying it was unclear about "the value of an abducted soldier's life" and failed to respect key principles of international law.
Hebrew name for ‘Temple Mount’
(English: The Noble Sanctuary) Muslim holy place, also referred to as Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, containing the Dome of the Rock, Al-Aqsa Mosque, and other structures. It is one of the three most important sites in Islam. The entire area is regarded as a mosque and comprises nearly one sixth of the walled city of Jerusalem (approximately 144 dunums). Muslims revere the site as the area to which Prophet Mohammed was transported on his miraculous night journey from Mecca to heaven (Isra w-Miraj). Jews revere the area as the location of their First and Second Temples, and refer to the area above and to the east of the Western Wall as ‘Har HaMoriyya’ or ‘Har HaBayt’ in Hebrew and as the ‘Temple Mount’ in English. Jewish extremists and some Christian evangelicals, namely dispensationalists, advocate the construction of a third Temple there. The visit of Ariel Sharon and fellow Likud members to the site on 28 September 2000 sparked the beginning of the Second Intifada. In July 2017, it was the scene of Palestinian popular protests in response to Israel’s placing metal detectors and cameras at the entrances to Al-Aqsa as “security” measures. Further disruptions occur at the site periodically, including a number of incidents regarding Bab Ar-Rahmeh, also known as the Golden Gate, in February and March 2019.
(also Harari Proposal) Compromise resolution adopted by the Knesset on 13 June 1950 based on a proposal by then MK Yizhar Harari, according to which the “constitution” of Israel would not be a single document, but composed of a series of Basic Laws to be created over time by a special committee. It states that "the First Knesset assigns to the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee the preparation of a proposed constitution for the state. The constitution will be made up of chapters, each of which will constitute a separate basic law. The chapters will be brought to the Knesset, as the Committee completes its work, and all the chapters together will constitute the constitution of the state." Since then, 13 Basic Laws have been enacted, but Israel still has no formal constitution.
(plural: Haredim) Follower of Haredi Judaism, the most theologically conservative form of Judaism (often called “Ultra-Orthodox”, though Haredim object to the term). Haredim consider the non-Orthodox streams of Judaism to be unjustifiable deviations from authentic Judaism. The vast majority of Haredi Jews are Ashkenazi. The largest Haredi population is found in Israel, where they currently make up 12% of the population and have the largest birth and growth rate of all population groups. The majority of the Haredi live in Jerusalem, where they even have their separate school system. Haredim generally wear clothing associated with 17th Century Central and Eastern Europe, tend to separate from the rest of Israeli society and follow strict behavior codes that ensure that they cannot be influenced by secular society. They are encouraged by their communities to study the Torah full time in Yeshivot rather than work, which is the main reason for them to belong to the poorer segments of society. Upon the establishment of Israel, Haredi males were exempted from the universal conscription into the Israeli army, which has attracted significant resentment from Israel's secular majority. Any attempt to change the situation regularly leads to large-scale Haredim protests. Today, Israeli Haredis are politically overwhelmingly right-wing affiliated, which is to are large extent based on their perception that the left wants to secularize them and society and replace religious with progressive universal values.
Hebrew word for “the act of explaining”, but commonly translated as “propaganda,” as Hasbara refers to the Israeli public diplomacy effort to disseminate positive information abroad about the State of Israel and its actions, while discrediting the Palestinian narrative and silencing any international criticism of its illegal practices in the OPT and on Palestinians. In Europe, for instance, the Israeli government has invested considerable resources in delegitimizing the BDS movement, influencing European policy-making and creating a narrative that equates any attempt to boycott Israel a form of Anti-Semitism.
Arab clan of Hashim from within the larger Quraish tribe, which directly descended from the Prophet Mohammed through Fatima, his daughter, and Ali, his son-in-law and cousin. Since the 20th Century the head of this family has been Governor of Mecca, with the title of Sharif. The Hashemites remained guardians of the Holy Places of Islam until 1923, when Sharif Hussein lost control of Mecca, which was taken over by the fundamentalist Wahabites under As-Saud (later founder of Saudi Arabia). Today, the Hashemites are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
(English: Watchman) Jewish defense organization created in Palestine in April 1909, becoming the legal version of the secret Bar Giora, to guard Jewish settlements. The organization ceased to operate after the founding of the Haganah in 1920.
(English: The Hope) (1.) National anthem of the State of Israel since its foundation in 1948.
(2.) Minor secular right-wing party in Israel, formed in late 2007 and headed by MK Aryeh Eldad. The party ran a joint list with Moledet for the 2009 Knesset elections. Hatikva is a "non-segregated party," drawing its constituency from both secular and religious elements of Israeli society. In 2012, Hatikva left the alliance of the National Union to form a new right-wing, nationalist party named Otzma LeYisrael (‘Power to Israel’).
(English: the Movement) Liberal Israeli political party formed by former Israeli Foreign Minister and Kadima leader Tzipi Livni in late 2012 to present an alternative to voters frustrated by the stalemate in the Palestinian-Israeli peace process. Prior to the 2015 elections, Hatnuah joined the Labor Party and ran in a joint list under the name Zionist Union, which came second in the elections, but the cooperation came to an end before the 2019 elections.
(English: The New Right) Israeli right-wing political party, established in December 2018 by then Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked and then Education Minister Naftali Bennett to run in the April 2019 elections. The party aims to be open to both religious and secular people and work for their full and equal partnership as well as for a one-state solution in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In the April 2019 election, the party failed to win a Knesset seat. In the run-up to the September 2019 election, it formed the joint electoral list Yamina together with the Union of the Right-Wing Parties, which won 3 seats.
HAYCRAFT COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
Commission established by the British authorities and headed by the Chief Justice of Palestine, Sir Thomas Haycraft. Its mandate was to investigate Palestinian violence against Jews, especially in the Jaffa area, during spring 1921, and to calm the tense atmosphere in historic Palestine. The Haycraft Commission of Inquiry issued its report in October 1921, attributing the disturbances to Arab fears about increasing Jewish immigration into Palestine.
(Arabic: Al-Khalil) Palestinian governorate and largest West Bank city with some 711,223 and 200,000 Palestinian residents respectively. From 1949 to 1967, Hebron was under Jordanian administration and is since then under Israeli occupation, including the Arroub and Fawwar refugee camps. Despite the fact that administrative control was handed over to the PA under the 1995 Oslo II Accord, Israel remains in control. The city is holy to Muslims and Jews who both pray at the traditional burial site of the matriarchs and patriarchs common to both faiths (Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, and Jacob and Leah), located in Hebron’s Old City and known as Al-Haram Al-Ibrahimi Mosque for Muslims and as Machpela Cave to Jews. Israel divided the worship area following the Hebron Massacre of 25 February 1994 (see below). The 1997 Hebron Agreement (see below) divided the city into two parts: H1 (80%), which is administered by the Palestinians and H2 (20%), which is controlled by Israel and where some 400 settlers live. In July 2017, UNESCO declared Hebron’s Old City a Palestinian world heritage site and also inscribed it as world heritage site in danger, sparking outrage from Israel. Hebron remains a point of frequent frictions, which were monitored by the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) until Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu decided not to extend its mandate on 28 January 2019 on the grounds that it was acting against Israel.
(also: Hebron Protocol) Accord reached between Israel and the PLO/ PA on 15 January 1997, in which Israel agreed to withdraw from 80% of the city (H1), while retaining control over an enclave of 500-800 settlers living among tens of thousands of Palestinians in the city’s center (20%, H2). H2 includes the Old City, Ibrahimi Mosque, and seven settlements (Abraham Avinu, Bet Hadassah, Bet Romano, Ramat Yashai-Tel Rumaida, Nahum House/Yehuda Barqoush, Bet Hashasha, Rachel Salonique). Following the signing of the Hebron Agreement, the two sides also signed, on 21 January 1997, an ‘Agreement on the Temporary International Presence in the city of Hebron’ setting out the arrangements for the ‘TIPH,’ to be made up of 180 persons from Norway, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey, tasked to monitor and report the situation in Hebron, with Norway being responsible for the overall coordination.
(also: Cave of the Patriarchs or Ibrahimi Mosque Massacre) Mass murder of 29 Palestinian worshippers inside Hebron’s Al-Ibrahimi Mosque at the hands of US-born settler and Kach supporter Baruch Goldstein, who entered the mosque on 25 February 1994 during the early morning prayers in the holy month of Ramadan, and opened fire. Before being overpowered and beaten to death, he killed 29 people and injured 125. During the ensuing protest, Israeli forces killed another 20-40 Palestinians and injured over 100 others.
(referred to by Jews as Hebron Massacre) Unrest that occurred on 23-24 August 1929 in Hebron, during the British Mandate era, in the wake of the Al-Buraq (Western Wall) disturbances between Arabs and Jews that spread from Jerusalem throughout the country. The riots were triggered by rumors that Jews had killed Arabs in Jerusalem and burned down Al-Aqsa Mosque. Arabs then began attacking Jews in the city, killing 67 Jews and wounding many others. About 435 Jews survived by hiding with their Arab neighbors, who risked their lives to save them. The surviving Jews were evacuated by the British, but some returned and lived in Hebron until the Arab Revolt of 1936.
English: Freedom) Political movement established in 1948 by Menachem Begin and other members of the Irgun-Zvei Leumi to continue as a parliamentary party with the ideals of Vladimir Jabotinsky. Herut merged with other parties and evolved into the Gahal party and later into the Likud.
HERUT THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT
Small right-wing Israeli faction that broke away from Likud in 1998 over the Likud Party's ratification and implementation of the Hebron Agreement and the Wye Accords, which derives its inspiration from the ideology of the historic Herut Party. The movement was headed by Benny Begin, son of Menachem Begin, until his retirement and subsequently by Michael Kleiner. Herut did not run in the 2009 elections and is considered defunct.
Israeli NGO that was established in the wake of and in order to promote the Geneva Accord along with its Palestinian counterpart, the Palestine Peace Coalition.
HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR PALESTINE
Head of the Civil Administration in Palestine that replaced British military rule in June 1920 and lasted until May 1948. The High Commissioner enjoyed wide ranging authority and powers over almost all spheres, although ultimate control resided with the British government, including using means such as collective punishment, censorship, deportation, and detention without trial. Altogether, there were seven British High Commissioners in Palestine, serving as follows: Sir Herbert Samuel (1920-25), Lord Herbert Onslow Plumer (1925-28), Sir John Herbert Chancellor (1928-31), Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope (1931-38), Sir Harold MacMichael (1938-44), John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, Viscount Gort (1944-45), and Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1945-48).
referring to loosely-organized religious-nationalist settlers, often radical right-wing ideologists, who establish illegal outposts in the West Bank, call for the expulsion of Palestinians, and regularly and violently assault Palestinian farmers, villagers, and Bedouins. Their origin goes back to then-Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon, who, in the wake of the Wye River Agreement, called in November 1998 on settler youth to "grab the hilltops", saying, "Everyone that's there should move, should run, should grab more hills, expand the territory. Everything that's grabbed will be in our hands. Everything we don't grab will be in their hands." Hilltop Youth are considered by some as "terror” group.
Jewish Labor Federation/Trade Union Movement, inaugurated in December 1920 in Haifa. It promoted Jewish employment, workers’ rights, and land settlement, and set up a national defense organization (Haganah) "to safeguard the national and social content of popular defense in this country" which it controlled it until its split in 1931. The Histadrut now operates a number of enterprises including Bank HaPoalim and the Kupat Holim health care system.
(English: Party of God; also spelled Hizb Allah, Hizballah or Hezbollah) Iranian-backed militant Islamic organization, created in 1982 in response to Israel’s invasion of Lebanon. It formally announced its existence in 1985 with the release of an “Open Letter” – a manifesto that outlined the party’s ideological beliefs, including ousting of Israeli forces from Lebanese soil, destruction of Israel, liberation of Jerusalem, and creation of an Islamic state in Lebanon. The organization is drawn from several Shi’a religious and political groups and derives its inspiration from Iran’s supreme leader. Hizbullah is based in predominantly Shi'ite areas of South Lebanon, the suburbs of Beirut, and the Beka’a Valley and is has been led by Secretary-General Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah since 1992. Hizbullah is strongly backed by Syria and Iran and has evolved into a significant political party that is represented in the Lebanese parliament since July 2005. In June 2006, Hizbullah’s abduction of two Israeli soldiers and the killing of four others triggered a fierce month-long military onslaught from Israel that impacted the whole of Lebanon. In November 2006, Hizbullah and its Shi’a allies quit the cabinet and spearheaded an opposition campaign to topple the government. Hizbullah was popular amongst the population for its defiance against Israel, however its popularity suffered from its siding with the Ba'ath regime in the Syrian civil war. Hizbullah’s military wing is listed as a terrorist organization by the US State Department and the EU.
(also: Historical Basin) Concept introduced by Israel during the Camp David negotiations in July 2000 and picked up in the Taba Talks in early 2001 with regard to the area embracing the Old City of Jerusalem and adjacent localities, including the Mount of Olives, Mount Zion, the ‘City of David’, the Kidron Valley, and the settlement area of Shimon Hatzadik in Sheikh Jarrah, which contain sites holy to Jews, Muslims and Christians. The idea was to create a special regime (international) for the area, which would be responsible for keeping order and ensuring freedom of belief as well as open access to all the holy sites. The Palestinians rejected the proposal, seeing it as a means of justifying Israeli claims to sovereignty in an area which is not only predominantly Palestinian but also occupied territory under international law, and insisted on Palestinian sovereignty instead.
Term referring to Jerusalem, especially the Old City, which Muslims, Jews, and Christians view as uniquely significant because it contains some of their most important Holy Places.
Term referring to historical Palestine (i.e., today’s Israel and the OPT), as well as portions of Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon, where biblical events and those related to Prophet Mohammed are believed to have occurred.
Religious sites generally identified with the lives and activities of Prophet Mohammed, Jesus, Mary, and the disciples, as well as King David and the Hebrew prophets, who are sometimes revered by members of all three faiths (e.g., the burial place of Abraham in Hebron, the tomb of Joseph in Nablus, and Rachel’s Tomb in Bethlehem).
Jewish settler organization that operates on behalf of Jewish right-wing families living in the Shimon Hatzadik area in Sheikh Jarrah, Jerusalem. It aims at evicting Palestinian residents from their houses to establish a new Jewish settlement enclave in the neighborhood.
Form of collective punishment in accordance with an Israeli military order, in which families are forcibly removed from their homes, which are then partially or completely destroyed. Israel uses demolitions (sometimes sealing) of houses as a punitive measure (e.g., against the families of suspected 'terrorists') or an administrative measure (using the pretext of lack of a building permit, which in turn are very hard to obtain for Palestinians). Home demolition as a punitive measure, is a breach of the Fourth Geneva Convention. It is estimated that since 1967 and as of 2017, Israel has destroyed close to 50,000 Palestinian homes and structures. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of “self-demolitions” in which Palestinian owners are forced to demolish their properties themselves to avoid heavy fines, following the issuance of demolition orders by the Israeli authorities.
HOPE SIMPSON COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
Second commission, following the Shaw Commission (see below), formed by British Prime Minister MacDonald in October 1930 to investigate the Palestinian uprisings in 1929 and the questions of Zionist immigration, settlement, and development. The inquiry was conducted by Sir John Hope-Simpson, who focused on the economic absorptive capacity of Palestine and recommended that Jewish immigration and land purchase be restricted because it was causing a growing population of landless Arabs and threatened Palestinian agricultural development. The recommendations were adopted by the Passfield White Paper (see below).
(English: Israeli Resilience) Israeli centrist party established in December 2018 ahead of the April 2019 elections by former Israeli army Chief of Staff Benny Gantz. It pledged to preserve Israel as "a Jewish and democratic country" and to change priorities in national security and the economy. Shortly after its formation, the party decided to run in the 2019 elections in a joint electoral list with Telem and Yesh Atid under the new party name Blue and White, which won 35 and 33 seats respectively in the April and September 2019 elections.
(also: Enemy Entity) Term introduced by Israel in September 2007 to denote the new status of the Gaza Strip, citing the threats posed by Hamas rule following the takeover of the strip in June that year, and continued Palestinian rocket attacks. Israel's goal in using this terminology was to reduce their responsibility for the safety and well-being of Gaza's civilian population and to discharge Israel of its obligations under international law to guarantee access to humanitarian supplies to the people in Gaza, though this assertion was promptly rejected by the UN and others in the international community.
(English: often translated as truce or ceasefire) Term that goes back to 628 AD when Prophet Mohammed, representing the state of Medina, concluded the legendary, ten-year ‘Hudaybiyya accord’ (after the place where it was signed) with the Quraysh tribe, which controlled Mecca at the time, to decrease tension between the two cities. In April 2008, Hamas political leader Khaled Masha’al offered Israel a 10-year hudna as a proof of recognition in exchange for a Palestinian state with genuine sovereignty, without settlements on pre-1967 borders, and with Jerusalem as its capital. The offer was rejected by Israel.
Assault by Jewish forces, led by first Lieutenant Shmuel Lahis, on the Lebanese border village of Hula on 31 October 1948, in which they sealed off the entrances to the village, rounded up inhabitants, dividing them among three houses where they then gunned them down before blowing up the houses with the bodies inside. In Israeli historian Benny Morris’ research, reports by then-Attorney General Ya’akov Shimshon Shapira claimed that 52 men, women, and children were killed in the Hula Massacre however an account by Israeli Commander Dov Yermiya suggested that 15-60 men were killed and women and children were sent away. According to Morris, in 1949 Lahis was tried and convicted in a military court within a larger effort by the Israeli cabinet to investigate other massacres and atrocities committed by members of the Jewish forces during the war. Though he was given a seven-year sentence, on appeal, the Supreme Military Court reduced the sentence to one year, which he served as an open prisoner in an Israeli army base. Within five years, he was pardoned at the behest of then Defense Minister Ben Gurion, and continued a long professional career.
HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
Fundamental international laws governing how people are treated and designed to promote and protect human rights. It applies at all times including during situations of emergency and conflict and sets out the basic protections that all individuals are entitled to, although during wars or temporary occupation all but the non-derogable provisions may be suspended in situations threatening the life of the nation. States are required to respect, ensure and fulfill these rights. In 1993, the UN General Assembly In 2006, the UN established the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was replaced in 2006 with the United Nations Human Rights Council for the enforcement of international human rights law.
Set of international laws regulating the conduct of war, i.e., how combatants and civilians are to be treated during war, armed conflict and occupation. It refers to a set of rules which seek, for humanitarian reasons, to limit the effects of armed conflict, to protect persons who are not or are no longer participating in hostilities, and restrict the means and methods of warfare.
Raids by Haganah paramilitaries on the Safad-area village of Al-Husayniyya on 12-13 March 1948, destroying homes with explosives killing several dozen Arabs including women and children with another 20 wounded. The village’s mukhtar was also executed after having been assured of his safety. These events, cited by Israeli historian Benny Morris, even struck officials in the British Army and Jewish National Fund as particularly brutal.
The July 1915-January 1916 exchange of letters between Sharif Hussein Bin Ali of Mecca and Sir Henry MacMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, in which MacMahon proposed Arab post-war independence from the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine, in return for an Arab rebellion against Ottoman forces. Based on this correspondence, Sharif Hussein launched the Arab Revolt and declared Arab independence from Ottoman rule in June 1916. However, neither side agreed on precise borders for a future Arab state, nor was Palestine mentioned by name. Following the 1917 Balfour Declaration and the leaking of the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, Sharif Hussein and other Arab leaders considered the agreements violated.
IBRAHIMI MOSQUE MASSACRE
see Hebron Massacre
Israeli law requires every permanent resident above the age of 16, whether a citizen or not, to carry an identification card called in Hebrew te'udatzehut (while Palestinians the Arab term hawiyya). Following the 1967 occupation, those documents were also imposed on Palestinians in two forms – in blue plastic casings with the Israeli Coat of Arms embossed on them for permanent residents of Jerusalem (as for Israeli citizens) and cards in orange plastic casings with the Israeli army’s insignia embossed for residents of the remaining occupied territories. After its establishment in 1994, the PA began issuing its own Palestinian ID cards with green casings for West Bankers and Gazans. However, Israel remains in control of the Palestinian population registry as per the Oslo Accords and still decides who receives a Palestinian ID card and assigns the ID numbers. Palestinians who resided in East Jerusalem and were there at the time of Israel’s 1967 census obtained a Jerusalem ID card, making them “permanent residents” (not citizens) of Israel (see Jerusalem ID Card) .
English acronym for “Israel Defense Forces,” which is Israel's military, including air force navy, and ground forces. The IDF was officially formed on 26 May 1948 at the order of then Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion, as a conscript army (male and females from age 18). It incorporated the three former Jewish underground militias Haganah, Irgun and Lehi. In Israel, it is commonly known as Tzahal, which is the Hebrew acronym for Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra'el (English: The Army of Defense for Israel). Palestinians prefer to use the term “Israeli (occupation) army” or “forces.” The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates the IDF’s active personnel at 169,500 and the reserve personnel at 465,000. Since January 2019, Chief of Staff is Lieutenant General Aviv Kochavi.
Hostile, forced entrance into a territory, usually used to denote an Israeli military invasion of Palestinian Area A, which is officially under full Palestinian civil and military control.
Umbrella list of candidates composed of individuals from the Palestinian National Initiative (see Al-Mubadara) and other like-minded independents, headed by Dr. Mustafa Barghouthi, which ran in the January 2006 PLC elections, winning two out of 132 parliament seats. The list promised to fight corruption, nepotism, and the Israeli Separation Barrier, and to provide "a truly democratic and independent 'third way' for the large majority of silent and unrepresented Palestinian voters, who favor neither the autocracy and corruption of the governing Fatah party nor the fundamentalism of Hamas." Independent Palestine accepted the 1993 Oslo Accords and favored resumption of negotiations with Israel.
INTERIM AGREEMENT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND EGYPT
(also: Sinai Interim Agreement) Understanding signed by Israel and Egypt, with US presence, in Geneva on 4 September 1975, providing for a limited forces zone, a UN supervised buffer zone, Egyptian and Israeli electronic surveillance stations, and an additional station to be manned by American technicians as part of an early warning system in the Sinai desert. Egypt also regained access to the Abu Rudeis oil fields. The duration of the agreement was to be at least three years with an annual extension of the mandate of the UN Emergency Force (UNEF).
INTERIM AGREEMENT ON THE WEST BANK AND THE GAZA STRIP
(Also: Taba or Oslo II Agreement) Agreement concluded in Taba on 26 September 1995 and signed by Israel and the Palestinians in Washington on 28 September. It outlined the second stage of Palestinian autonomy, extending it to the remaining parts of the West Bank (after “Jericho first”), divided the West Bank into Areas A (Palestinian civil jurisdiction and internal security), B (Palestinian civil jurisdiction, joint Israeli-Palestinian internal security), and C (Israeli civil and overall security control), and determined the election and powers of a Palestinian Legislative Council. October 1997 was the target date for the completion of further redeployment and October 1999 for reaching a final status agreement – which has not materialized as of the publication this book.
INTERNAL SECURITY FORCES (Palestinian)
Several bodies of the Palestinian security apparatus, including the Civil Police Force, Civil Defense, and the Preventive Security Service (PSS).
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
(1.) Palestinian refugees who fled, were displaced, or were expelled from their villages and homes during the 1948 War but remained in the area that became the state of Israel. UNRWA and ICRC estimates put their numbers at 30,000-40,000. Today, their number, including their descendants, is believed to exceed 300,000. Internally displaced Palestinians of 1948 have never been allowed to return to their homes and villages, and Israel has always refused to deal with them as a refugee problem.
(2.) An estimated 334,600 Palestinians internally displaced in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967 (see also Displaced Persons).
INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR ARAB ISRAELI PEACE
(also: Copenhagen Group and Louisiana Group) Regional peace initiative, sponsored by the Danish government, founded in Louisiana, Denmark (north of Copenhagen) on January 1997 by a group of Egyptian, Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli intellectuals. Participants issued the ‘Copenhagen Declaration’, which states their commitment to unify those who have a shared vision of peace, to sustain Israeli-Arab dialogue, and to promote peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors. The group held several conferences but has come under fierce attack throughout the Arab World on the grounds that there should be no efforts toward normalization until the policies of the Israeli government dramatically change.
INTERNATIONAL CHRISTIAN EMBASSY
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
see Human Rights Law
INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
see Humanitarian Law
(also: Law of Nations) Set of legal rules, norms, and standards established by custom or treaty that apply between sovereign states and other legally recognized entities and are recognized as binding in their relations with one another. It thus serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations and is central to advancing international peace and security. Whereas international law constitutes consent-based governance by sovereign states, violations of customary international law and peremptory norms (jus cogens) can induce military action or other forms of coercion, such as diplomatic pressure or economic sanctions.
INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT (ISM)
Palestinian-led movement of Palestinian and international activists, which works to raise awareness about the Palestinian struggle for freedom and an end to Israeli occupation, while promoting non-violent, direct-action methods of resistance and protesting Israeli policies in the OPT.
Term referring to Part III of the UN General Assembly Resolution 181 of November 1947, which proposed the partition of Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state, while determining that the City of Jerusalem should not go to either of the sides but have a separate and permanent international status. It thus stipulated that Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum (also including Bethlehem) under a special international regime, administered by the United Nations.
Campaigning efforts by the PA, PLO and President Mahmoud Abbas that began in 2011 and aimed to achieve recognition for Palestinian statehood and rights from international bodies. By deliberately moving the Palestinian cause to the international level, the Palestinian leadership hoped to succeed more than by continuing to try bridging the gaps with Israel through negotiation. In September 2011, President Abbas submitted a request to the UN Security Council asking for the admission of an independent Palestinian state to the UN. The bid stalled when it became clear that the US would veto it and that several other members would abstain from voting. However, UN General Assembly Resolution 67/19 of 29 November 2012 accorded Palestine “non-member observer state.”
English: Civil Uprising; literally: Shaking off) (1.) What is today referred to as the 'first Intifada' erupted in Gaza on 9 December 1987 after four Palestinians were killed when an Israeli military truck collided with two vans carrying Palestinian workers. Ensuing clashes spread rapidly to the rest of the OPT. The Intifada was carried by youth and directed by the ‘Unified National Leadership of the Uprising’, a coalition of the main political factions, with the goal of ending the Israeli occupation and establishing Palestinian independence. Israel's heavy-handed response included closing universities, deporting activists, and destroying homes, but was also a motivating factor in the international community attempting to find a permanent solution. The Intifada came to an end with the signing of the Oslo Accords, by which time over 1,500 Palestinians had been killed and tens of thousands injured. According to the Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories B’Tselem, also 100 Israeli civilians and 60 military personnel were killed.
(2.) The 'Al-Aqsa Intifada' or 'second Intifada' began on 28 September 2000 when Likud opposition leader Ariel Sharon made a provocative visit to Al-Aqsa Mosque with thousands of security forces deployed in and around the Old City of Jerusalem. Ensuing clashes with Palestinian protestors left five Palestinians dead and over 200 injured during the first two days, and the incident soon sparked a widespread, this time armed, uprising in the OPT, Israel, and the Arab world. The Al-Aqsa Intifada brought what was left of the peace process to a halt, sidelined President Arafat, caused unprecedented damage to the Palestinian economy and infrastructure, saw PA areas re-occupied, and led to an accelerated construction of the Separation Barrier. According to documentation by B’Tselem, the death toll among Palestinians had reached at least 5,000 by late 2008, with over 50,000 injured.
see City of David
IRAQ STUDY GROUP REPORT: THE WAY FORWARD A NEW APPROACH
Report issued on 6 December 2006 by the Iraq Study Group (also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission), headed by former US Secretary of State James Baker and former Democratic congressman Lee Hamilton, which assessed the state of the US war in Iraq, recommending the training of Iraqi troops and an end to combat operations but stopping short of calling for a phased withdrawal of US troops. The report also stated that "there must be a renewed and sustained commitment by the US to comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace on all fronts" and a "commitment to a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine." Regarding the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, five key elements were listed: (1) adhere to UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 and the principle of land for peace, (2) provide strong support for President Abbas and the PA in negotiations with Israel, (3) move from the current hostilities by consolidating the cease-fire reached between the Israelis and Palestinians in November 2006, (4) support a Palestinian unity government, and (5) facilitate sustainable negotiations leading to a final peace settlement along the lines of President Bush's two-state solution, which would address final status issues.
IRAQI JORDANIAN FEDERATION
(also: Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan) Alliance formed on 14 February 1958 when King Faisal II of Iraq and his cousin, King Hussein of Jordan, sought to unite their kingdoms in order to counter the recent alignment between Syria and Egypt (see United Arab Republic). The confederation lasted only six months in the face of Egyptian opposition and was officially dissolved on 2 August 1958, after King Faisal was deposed by a military coup two weeks earlier.
(full name: Irgun Zvei Le'umi; English: National Military Organization; also: Etzel or Haganah Le'umit; English: National Defense) Militant Jewish underground group established by dissident Haganah commanders in April 1931 and led by Zeev Jabotinsky. It was responsible for some 60 terror attacks against British and Palestinian targets. In June 1940, the Irgun split into Avraham Stern’s Irgun Zvei Leumi Be'yisrael (National Military Organization in Israel, later known as Lohamei Herut Yisrael, Lehi, or Stern Gang), which saw the British as the main enemy, and David Raziel's Irgun Zvai Leumi Be'eretz Yisrael (National Military Organization in Eretz Israel), which was closely linked to Jabotinsky’s Revisionist Party and whose main targets were Arabs. The last Commander-in-Chief (1943-48) was Menchem Begin, who later became the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. The Irgun disbanded following the establishment of the state of Israel and integrated into the army of the new state.
ISLAMIC MOVEMENT IN ISRAEL
Version of the international Muslim Brotherhood founded in 1971 by Abdullah Nimr Darwish and a group of Israeli Arabs, advocating a return to Islam and armed struggle against the state. The Islamic Movement runs kindergartens, social welfare services, clinics, a religious college, sports clubs, volunteer work camps, and a TV station. In 1996, the organization split between the southern, more moderate branch, led by Sheikh Abdullah Nimr Darwish, and the northern, more hard-line branch, which boycotts Israeli elections and strongly supports the Palestinians in the occupied Territories. The northern branch, led by Raed Salah who was convicted of incitement to terror in November 2019, was outlawed by the Israeli government in November 2015 due to alleged close ties with Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood.
ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES
ISRAEL DEMOCRATIC PARTY
(Hebrew: Yisrael Democratit, literally: Democratic Israel) Political party founded by former Prime Minister Ehud Barak in June 2019, vowing to save Israeli democracy and defeat Prime Minister Netanyahu in the September 2019 elections. In July 2019, its election campaign was launched under the slogan "the State of Netanyahu or the State of Israel." Among its other commitments are enacting a constitution based on the Israeli Declaration of Independence, establishing permanent borders for Israel within two years, increasing spending on social services (such as free education and healthcare), allowing civil marriage and divorce, and increasing the salary of the Israeli forces. Barak’s name choice for his party has drawn criticism from both Democrats and Republicans in the US, who deem it misleading for different reasons. From the beginning, the party has positioned itself against the Netanyahu government and has aimed to form a left-wing bloc by reaching out to leaders such as Meretz’s Nitzan Horowitz.
ISRAEL LAND ADMINISTRATION (ILA)
Government agency responsible for managing national lands (i.e. lands of the Development Authority and the Jewish National Fund), which amount to some 93% of the land in the State of Israel. According to the Israel Land Administration Law of 1960, the Agriculture and Finance Ministries are charged with its implementation. Among the functions of the ILA are safeguarding state lands, development planning, and making state land available for 'public use.' As part of reforms started in 2009, the ILA was dismantled and replaced by the Israel Land Authority.
ISRAEL RESILIENCE PARTY
see Hosen L’Yisrael
ISRAEL JORDAN COMMON AGENDA
Understanding signed in Washington on 14 September 1994, constituting the blueprint for the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty (see below). The Agenda is comprised of the following components: security, water, refugees and displaced persons, borders, and territorial matters.
Jewish Israeli term for members of the indigenous population of Israel, i.e., those Palestinians who were left in what became the State of Israel in 1948 and subsequently became citizens of that state. Palestinians refer to them as “1948-Palestinians” (or “48-ers”), “Palestinians inside,” or “Palestinian citizens of Israel.”
ISRAELI CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
Israeli military body tasked with administrative matters in over the West Bank and Gaza Strip introduced by Military Order No. 947 of 8 November 1981 (Order for the Establishment of the Civilian Administration, Judea and Samaria), replacing the previous Military Government. Henceforth, powers of government, legislation, appointment and administration in relation to the West Bank and Gaza Strip (the latter until the 2005 Disengagement) and/or their inhabitants were exercised by the head of the Civil Administration. The Civil Administration is part of the COGAT (see Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories), which in turn is a unit in the Israeli Defense Ministry.
ISRAELI JORDANIAN PEACE TREATY
formally: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan; also: Wadi ‘Araba Treaty) Treaty signed by Israel and Jordan at the southern border crossing of Wadi ‘Araba on 26 October 1994, following the earlier signing of the Washington Declaration (see below) in July that year, which ended the 46-year war between the two countries. It normalized relations between the two states, resolved territorial disputes between them (restoring some 380 km2 of occupied lands to Jordan, guaranteeing it an equal share of water from the Yarmouk and Jordan Rivers, and defining its western borders conclusively), and provided a solid framework for bilateral cooperation in the political, economic, and cultural fields. As a result of this treaty, Jordan became the second Arab country (after Egypt) to sign a peace agreement with Israel.
ISRAELI PROPOSAL FOR A SELF-GOVERNING AUTHOR¬ITY IN THE TERRITORIES
Proposal, similar in nature to Menahem Begin’s 1977 Autonomy Plan, made with reference to the provisions of the Camp David Accords (September 1978) and put forward on 31 January 1982. It promoted a “Self-Governing Authority” (Administrative Council) to be elected in the OPT with control over civil and municipal affairs (administration of the justice system, agriculture, finance, health, education, housing and public works, transportation and communications, labor and social welfare, police, religious affairs, industry, commerce and tourism, etc.), while Israel would retain control of security with army redeployment to “specified security locations.”
(English: Independence Party) First regularly constituted Palestinian political party established in August 1932 by Awni Abdul Hadi and other activists. It reflected the frustration of educated nationalists over the national movement’s failure to effectively confront Zionism and British support of it. The party called for an end of the British Mandate and advocated the independence and unity of all Arab countries, as well as Palestine's Arab identity and its belonging to Greater Syria. Istiqlal criticized the Husseini-Nashashibi rivalry for dividing Palestinians but was unable to challenge either camp and became increasingly insignificant.
IZZ EDDIN AL QASSAM BRIGADES
(also: Izz Al-Din, Izzeddin or Ezzedin Al-Qassam or short: Qassam Brigades) Military wing of Hamas and nominally controlled by the political organization, but is largely a nebula of small groups. It grew out of several resistance networks established by Hamas during the first Intifada and became known as its armed branch in mid-1991. The group is named after Muslim Brotherhood member Sheikh Izz Eddin Al-Qassam, who preached Jihad against the British and the Zionists, and was killed in action by British forces near Jenin in 1935. They are responsible for numerous attacks on Israeli targets, including suicide bombings. Since the outbreak of the Second Intifada in September 2000, the Brigades became a central target of Israel, which has killed hundreds of its members. They are listed as a terrorist organization by the US, the EU, and Australia. As part of the October 2017 Reconciliation Agreement between Fatah and Hamas, the former demanded the dissolution of the Al-Qassam Brigades.
Assignment named after its head, Sweden's Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Dr. Gunnar Jarring, who aimed at bringing the Arabs and Israelis together for talks. The assignment was based on UN Security Council Resolution 242 of 22 November 1967, which called for the appointment of a special Middle East representative to help promote an agreement to achieve a peaceful and accepted settlement. Jarring arrived in the Middle East in early 1968 and met with the leaders of Israel and of the Arab states. The mission reached an impasse in late 1969, because the Arab states would not negotiate with Israel directly or indirectly. It resumed briefly after August 1970, but was again suspended because of Egyptian violations of the cease-fire agreement (that had ended the war of attrition along the Suez Canal). In February 1971, Jarring presented Israel and Egypt identical notes proposing a peace settlement. However, due to Egypt’s insistence of a total Israeli withdrawal and a resolution of the Palestinian problem and Israel’s refusal to return to the 4 June 1967 lines, the mission effectively lapsed. The failure of the Jarring Mission, which was not formally terminated until 1990, led the US to create its own approach to Middle East peace, the Rogers Plan (see below). Jarring remained a UN special envoy on the Middle East until 1991.
Northernmost Palestinian governorate and city in the West Bank which has an estimated population of 314,866 and almost 50,000 respectively (PCBS, 2019). It holds one of the two campuses of the Arab American University and is home to the Fatima Khatun Mosque, which was built by the Ottomans in 1566. The city was under Jordanian administration from 1949 to 1967 and since then has been under Israeli occupation, despite the fact that administrative control was handed over to the Palestinian Authority under the 1995 Oslo II Accord. Within the city boundaries the Jenin refugee camp can also be found, which was established by the UNRWA in 1953 and which became a symbol of Palestinian resistance against the Israeli occupation during the Second Intifada in 2002 (see Battle of Jenin).
see Battle of Jenin
(Arabic: Ariha) Smallest Palestinian governorate (with an approximate population of 50,000) and a city in the West Bank, home to some 20,000 Palestinians (PCBS, 2019). It is believed to be the oldest city in the world, with evidence of settlements from 10,000 BC. Jericho is also known as “City of the Moon” as its Arabic name Ariha is derived from Yarikh, the name of the Canaanite god of the moon and provider of nightly dew. Only 10 km east of Jerusalem, in the Jordan Valley near the Jordan River, Jericho serves as a gateway city to Jordan via the Allenby Bridge. It is an oasis located close to the northern shore of the Dead Sea and is considered the lowest city on earth, lying some 258 meters below sea level. It is also known for its natural beauty and archeological remains dating back to the Neolithic period and, as such, is a major tourist destination in Palestine. It is also home to the refugee camps of Aqabat, Jabr and Ein Sultan. The city was under Jordanian administration from 1949 to 1967 and since then has been under Israeli occupation, despite the fact that administrative control was handed over to the Palestinians under the 1994 Oslo I Accord (also known as “Gaza-Jericho First”), when Jericho temporarily became the Palestinian seat of government.
JERICHO JAIL DEAL
Deal brokered by the UK and US which ended an Israeli siege of Yasser Arafat's Ramallah compound (Al-Muqata’a) in the spring of 2002. Israeli troops had surrounded the compound during a major incursion into the West Bank (see Operation ‘Defensive Shield’) demanding the surrender of wanted men hiding inside. Under the deal, accepted by both Israel and the PA, six Palestinian prisoners were to be placed in the Jericho jail under the guard of American and British monitors. Four of the prisoners had been convicted by a makeshift Palestinian military court of assassinating extreme right-wing Israeli Tourism Minister Rehavam Ze'evi in 2001. The fifth was PFLP leader, Ahmed Sa’adat, whose group claimed responsibility for Ze'evi's murder. The sixth was one of Arafat's top financial advisers, Fuad Shobaki, who was linked to a failed attempt to smuggle weapons from Iran to Gaza via the Karine A ship. They remained in the Jericho jail until Israel’s raid of it, following the withdrawal of American and British monitors (see Jericho Jail Raid below).
JERICHO JAIL RAID
Israeli army’s raid on the PA prison in Jericho on 14 March 2006, minutes after the American and British monitors withdrew – a move they had threatened after complaining to the PA about the security conditions and non-compliance with the Jericho jail deal (see entry above) over monitoring arrangements regarding visitors, cell searches, telephone access, and correspondence. After a nearly 10-hour siege of the prison, during which two Palestinian policemen were killed and several others wounded, at least 200 Palestinian prisoners and security guards surrendered to the Israeli forces, including the six Palestinian prisoners connected with the Jericho jail deal.
Proposal discussed in 1974 between Jordan and Israel, promoted by then Foreign Minister Yigal Allon with the assistance of US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. According to the plan, segments of the Jericho district would have been returned to Jordan within the framework of a separation of forces agreement, similar to the agreements Israel signed with Egypt and Syria. The plan was abandoned after the Arab summit in Rabat in October 1974, which denied King Hussein the right to negotiate on the future of the OPT and declared the PLO the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
City holy to the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Islam and Christianity, which still remains at the core of the unresolved Arab-Israeli conflict. The city’s west side (also known as “New City”) is mostly inhabited by Israelis, while occupied East Jerusalem, including the Old City (with its four – Muslim, Christian, Armenian and Jewish – quarters) is home to currently, an estimated 300,000 Palestinians (comprising about 40% of the city’s total population) and 200,000 Jewish settlers. Jerusalem was one of the issues (along with borders, settlements, refugees, security arrangements, relations and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues of common interest) that the 1993 Declaration of Principles and the Oslo process deferred to subsequent permanent status negotiations, which were to be finalized in 1999 but have not yet been held. The city is also home to the Shu’fat refugee camp. (See also East Jerusalem).
JERUSALEM 2000/2020 MASTER PLAN
Town Planning Scheme for a “united Jerusalem” first proposed by Ehud Olmert during his second term as mayor of Jerusalem in 2000 (then also known as “known as Report No. 4”), later disclosed and officially presented by then-mayor of Jerusalem Uri Lupoliansky on 13 September 2004. The plan was to serve as a mandatory map for land use and a blueprint for other municipal planning purposes until the year 2020 and marked the first time that East and West Jerusalem were addressed as one entity under Israeli sovereignty. The plan’s central goal was to encourage young Israeli-Jews to settle in Jerusalem by providing affordable housing and tax benefits in order to “maintain a solid Jewish majority in the city” according to the original target (of 1967) of 70% Jews and 30% Palestinians. However, after planners later admitted that this was impossible given the demographic trends it was adjusted to a ratio of 60:40 by 2020. (The 2017 Unified Jerusalem Bill aimed to decrease the number of Palestinians to 30% once again). The plan’s geographic and demographic manipulations to counter the trend include the construction of the Separation Barrier (leaving some 150,000 Palestinians behind the municipal borders), closure and house demolition policies, and expropriation of Palestinian land, including private property, through the application of the 1950 Absentee Property Law. The plan provided for the establishment of additional Jewish settlements and public institutions, while hampering Palestinian development and neglecting Palestinian suburbs. It was never deposited for public view but updated and publicized in 2010 as Jerusalem 2030 Master Plan.
JERUSALEM 2030 MASTER PLAN
Revised and updated version of an earlier master plan (see Jerusalem 2000/2020 Master Plan), which was drafted by a 31-member planning committee and publicized in 2010. It defined a range of development issues within the entire Jerusalem municipal boundaries until the year 2030, most remarkably also acknowledging the housing crisis in Palestinian neighborhoods (which was probably due to the fact that one of the committee members was a Palestinian). However, while the plan conceded that a population ratio of 60% Jews: 40% Palestinians was more realistic, it maintained the 70:30 goal, ignored the need to allocate land to Palestinians, and focused on Israeli-Jewish settlement expansion.
JERUSALEM 5800 MASTER PLAN
Plan based on a private initiative of the Israeli business community, launched by Australian technology innovator and real estate investor Kevin Bermeister in 2012 and pursued with the endorsement of the Israeli government. It outlines a vision of Jerusalem by the year 2040 (= 5800 on the Hebrew calendar, hence the name) which portrays the city as a metropolis – reaching to the Dead Sea (east), Ramallah (north) and Bethlehem/Etzion settlement bloc (south) – and as Israeli-Jewish high-tech hub with underground traffic systems, rooftop gardens, and vehicle-free pedestrian areas. Promotion of tourism is at the core of the plan, which estimates 12 million tourists annually by 2050 and also proposes the construction of an airport east to the city. While the plan’s focus is on economic growth, it is colonial at its heart, consolidating Israeli control in the city and neglecting Palestinian claims as well as erasing their narrative.
(Hebrew: Yom Yerushalayim) Commemoration of the “reunification” of East and West Jerusalem on 7 June 1967 as well as Israel’s “regaining” control over the Old City, celebrated by Jewish Israelis with memorial services, parades and prayers on the 28th of Iyar. It is often accompanied by provocative actions against Palestinians living in the city.
JERUSALEM EMBASSY RELOCATION ACT
Legislation adopted on 23 October 1995 by both the US Senate (93-5) and House (374-37) stating that every country designates its own capital, and that Israel has so designated Jerusalem, the spiritual center of Judaism. Additionally, the act states US official policy towards Jerusalem is that it should remain a united city in which the rights of every ethnic and religious group are protected, it should be recognized as the capital of the State of Israel, and that the US Embassy should be established there no later than 31 May 1999. A built-in waiver, which allows the President to postpone the move for six months on grounds of “national security,” has repeatedly been invoked by successive US presidents, from Bill Clinton to George W. Bush and Barack Obama, meaning the law has never taken effect. During his 2016 election campaign, US President Donald Trump promised to finally move the US embassy, but also signed the waiver in June and December 2017, just after giving a highly controversial speech recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and saying he had instructed the State Department to begin preparation to relocate the US embassy. The US Embassy officially relocated to the Arnona section of the US Consulate in Jerusalem on 14 May 2018, coinciding with the 70th anniversary of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.
JERUSALEM ENVELOPE PLAN
(also Jerusalem Security Plan) Term used by Israel for the Separation Barrier it builds via fences or concrete walls around Jerusalem to restrict access for Palestinians from the West Bank (see also Separation Barrier).
JERUSALEM ID CARD
Israeli issued document held by Palestinians classified as “permanent residents of Jerusalem” (based on the 1952 Law of Entry to Israel and the 1974 Entry to Israel Regulations). The first such cards were given to those Palestinians living in East Jerusalem within the new municipal borders at the time of Israel’s 1967 census (those who were absent later had to apply for family reunification to the Interior Ministry). Jerusalem ID card holders are entitled to certain benefits denied to Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza Strip (e.g., national and health insurance), they can travel freely and have access to employment in Jerusalem and in Israel. They must also pay all the taxes that Israel's citizens pay, cannot leave the country without travel documents (also called ‘laissez-passer’) issued by Israel's Ministry of the Interior, and are subject to discriminatory laws and policies. The confiscation and revocation of Jerusalem ID cards under bureaucratic pretexts is one of Israel’s methods to control the number of Palestinians in the city. As of 2018, at least 14,643 ID cards had been revoked from Palestinian residents of Jerusalem since 1967.
JERUSALEM SHIELD PLAN
Israeli plan “secretly” worked out by a team which was put together by Chaim Silberstein, founder and president of the Keep Jerusalem organization and including Maj. Gen. (ret.) Gershon Hacohen, former Foreign Ministry legal adviser Alan Baker, Muni Ben-Ari from Kfar Adumim, architect Yoram Ginsburg, former ambassador Yoram Ettinger, and reporter Nadav Shragai, and gained the support of Minister of Jerusalem and Heritage Zeev Elkin. The plan is driven by the desire to “improve” the demographic balance of Jerusalem by reducing the Palestinian population. It essentially intends to decouple the Palestinian neighborhoods Kufr Aqab and Shu’fat refugee camp from Jerusalem, i.e., remove them from the municipal jurisdiction and create a separate local authority for them, while still keeping them under Israeli sovereignty. (See also Unified Jerusalem Bill).
JERUSALEM STATEMENT OF 2007
Declaration in November 2007 by over 100 Palestinian Jerusalemite public figures, as well as Muslim and Christian leaders, in reaction to the lack of a definitive stance by the PA and negotiating teams regarding Jerusalem prior to the Istanbul International Conference on Jerusalem and the Annapolis Conference. The statement asserts Palestinian political, religious, and economic rights to the city and declares these non-negotiable in any final status talks.
Organization formed in 1920-21 by virtue of Article IV of the British Mandate for Palestine terms of reference as the formal representative of the Jewish community vis-à-vis the British mandatory government. After the establishment of the state of Israel, the Jewish Agency shifted its focus to issues common to the state and to Jewish communities abroad, encouraging and organizing the immigration of Jews and assisting in their integration. The Jewish Agency sponsors programs that connect Jews worldwide to Israel, including visits (e.g., “Birthright”-trips), and educational and social action projects.
JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION
Organization founded in 1891 by the German financier Baron Maurice de Hirsch to assist Jewish emigration from countries of persecution or depressed economies (e.g., Russia and other Eastern European countries) to mainly North and South America, where the association purchased land to establish agricultural colonies for that purpose. Financial aid for independent colonies in Ottoman Palestine was provided from 1896, marking the initial process of Zionist land acquisition and settlement.
JEWISH NATIONAL FUND (JNF)
(Hebrew: Keren Kayemeth L'Yisrael or KKL, English: Perpetual Fund Capital for Israel) Body of the World Zionist Organization, founded in 1901 at the Fifth Zionist Congress in Basel, to raise funds in Jewish communities for the purpose of purchasing, colonizing and developing land in Palestine for Jews exclusively. Today, the JNF is a multi-national corporation with offices in numerous countries worldwide. By 2007, it was estimated that the JNF owned 13% of the total land in Israel. In 2017 the JNF agreed to transfer one billion NIS (US$287 million) in 2018, and the same amount in 2019, to the Israeli state to 'cover infrastructure and development needs'.
JEWISH VOICE FOR PEACE (JVP)
Non-governmental organization based in the US with over 200,000 online supporters and 70 chapters, which works for a US foreign policy that is based on its ideals, inspired by Jewish tradition: peace, social justice, equality, human rights, and respect for international law. According to its mission statement, the JVP “opposes anti-Jewish, anti-Muslim, and anti-Arab bigotry and oppression” and “seeks an end to the Israeli occupation” with “security and self-determination” for both peoples, a just solution for Palestinian refugees, and an end to violence. Given its support for the BDS movement, Israel’s Strategic Affairs Ministry placed the JVP in January 2018 (along five other groups based in the US on its black list of organizations whose activists are not allowed to enter the state of Israel. -governmental organization based in the US with over 200,000 online supporters and 70 chapters, which works for a US foreign policy that is based on its ideals, inspired by Jewish tradition: peace, social justice, equality, human rights, and respect for international law. According to its mission statement, the JVP “opposes anti-Jewish, anti-Muslim, and anti-Arab bigotry and oppression” and “seeks an end to the Israeli occupation” with “security and self-determination” for both peoples, a just solution for Palestinian refugees, and an end to violence. Given its support for the BDS movement, Israel’s Strategic Affairs Ministry placed the JVP in January 2018 (along five other groups based in the US on its black list of organizations whose activists are not allowed to enter the state of Israel.
Form of land ownership in the Ottoman Empire referring to land that had been bequeathed to the Sultan by its owners and was then rented out directly to tenants.
(English: Holy struggle – not: Holy war) Reference to the striving of a Muslim to keep the faith, to achieve self-control or personal development, and/or to improve the quality of life in society (greater jihad). The Qur’an also speaks of a jihad of arms (smaller jihad), which permits fighting as a means of self-protection against tyranny or oppression. The fighter who fights a jihad – a Mujahid – is believed to go to Paradise if he dies, while the enemy will go to Hell.
(also: Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan) Water allocation scheme proposed in 1953 by US Special Envoy to the Middle East Ambassador Eric Johnston. The plan was the product of negotiations with representatives of Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan, and resulted in a unified plan for water resource development of the Jordan Valley (1955). However, the plan was never adopted or ratified, partly because the Arab states, particularly Jordan, did not need a comprehensive water development program that directly involved Israel to achieve their immediate development goals. In addition, the Arab states did not agree to the criteria that were used for dividing the shares among the parties.
Political alliance uniting the four Arab-dominated parties in Israel: Hadash, United Arab List, Balad and Ta’al. The list was formed in 2015 and headed by Ayman Odeh (Hadash). It became the third largest faction in the Knesset (13/120 seats) after the parliamentary elections of that year (10.55% of the total vote). In February 2019, internal conflicts towards the April 2019 elections disbanded the Joint List which broke into two separate slates – Hadash-Ta’al, led by Ayman Odeh, and Ra’am Balad, led by Mansour Abbas – winning 6 and 4 seats respectively. In the run-up to the September 2019 elections, the former allies decided to unite once more, hoping, inter alia, that jointly they may help overthrow the right-wing government and its racist anti-democratic path. On 27 July 2019, the Joint List announced its re-establishment (including Hadash, Balad, Ta’al, and UAL), headed by Ayman Odeh. The slate won 10.5% of the votes and 13 seats, maintaining its status as the third largest party in the Knesset.
JORDAN IS PALESTINE
Slogan first coined in 1981 by then Defense Minister Ariel Sharon describing a policy which sought to have Jordan recognized as the Palestinian state (i.e., suggesting that the Palestine Question should be resolved in Jordan rather than in the West Bank). The notion is based on arguments such as: Jordan occupies most of what was the original Palestine Mandate, Jordanians and Palestinians are one people, and a majority of the Jordanians are actually Palestinians. (See Jordan Option).
Term referring to the Israeli plan (first articulated by the Labor Party) to reach a political agreement over the future of the West Bank and Gaza with Jordan rather than the Palestinians. Until today, every now and then the Jordan option, with variations ranging from 'increase the role of Jordan in the West Bank' to 'relocate all Palestinians to Jordan,' is discussed in Israeli (right-wing) academic and political circles.
JORDAN RIVER BASIN
Major international watercourse in the Middle East region shared among Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and Israel. The 320 km long Jordan River, which flows through the Sea of Galilee to the northern end of the Dead Sea is the main regional surface water system in the West Bank and the only permanent surface water source for Palestine. To date, however, Israel diverts at least 75% of the river’s water before it reaches the West Bank. The Jordan River derives its waters from the Hasbani River, which originates in Syria (while parts of it flow into Lebanon), and the Dan and Banias Rivers, which originate in the occupied Golan Heights and flow into the Jordan above the Sea of Galilee. The lower Jordan River is fed from rainfall, groundwater flow, the western wadis of the West Bank, Syria, and Jordan, and by the Yarmouk River, which originates in Syria and borders Jordan, Syria, and the Golan Heights. The bulk of water from the Jordan River is used by Israel, while Palestinians are denied access to their full share of available water. Prior to 1967, Palestinians made use of these waters through 140 pumping units, which were either destroyed or confiscated by Israeli authorities immediately after the Six-Day War in June 1967. Palestinians are not allowed to utilize the Jordan River.
(Also: Jordan Rift Valley; Arabic: Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) Segment of the 6,500-km-long Syrian-East African Rift (extending from Syria to the Red Sea and continuing through a large portion of Eastern Africa). The rift valley, which covers 400 km2 and lies at an elevation of roughly 200-300 meters below sea level, is located in Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights and covers the areas of the Jordan River, Lake Tiberias, Jericho, and the Dead Sea. The Jordan Valley represents more than a quarter of the West Bank and is home to almost 80,000 Palestinians (living in Jericho, in 28 villages or refugee camps, and in small herding and Bedouin communities) and about 10,000 Israeli settlers (in 37 settlements). Most of the Jordan Valley falls under the control of Israeli settlement councils at the expense of the indigenous Palestinian population. It further acts as a border between Israel and Jordan, which Israel wants to retain the area as a buffer zone, claiming that the Valley is vital to its defense interests. Because of the Jordan Valley's water resources, arable lands, and border access to Jordan it is also necessary for a viable Palestinian state. Israel restricts access for Palestinians (via declaration of state lands, closed firing zones and nature reserves) and frequently demolishes their homes and structures in the Valley. Ahead of the September 2019 Israeli elections, Prime Minister Netanyahu pledged to annex the area, i.e., to apply Israeli sovereignty over the Jordan Valley and the northern Dead Sea if the election return him to office.
(also: Jordanian-Egyptian Non-Paper or Initiative) Joint Jordanian-Egyptian plan submitted in April 2001 that aimed to end violence between Israelis and Palestinians (Al-Aqsa Intifada) and resume negotiations. The plan foresaw a ceasefire, an end to Israel’s sanctions against the Palestinians and withdrawal of its troops, implementation of existing interim agreements, confidence-building measures (including implementation of the September 1999 Sharm Esh-Sheikh Memorandum, as well as all security commitments, cessation of settlement activities, and protection of all holy places), and the renewal of negotiations on all outstanding issues. Final status negotiations would be based on the progress achieved in previous talks, including Camp David and Taba, and a target date would be set for their conclusion. The EU, Egypt, Jordan, and the UN Secretary-General were proposed as monitors for the implementation of the suggested process. While most Arab and world leaders welcomed the initiative, Prime Minister Sharon rejected it as a "nonstarter."
JORDANIAN-ISRAELI PEACE TREATY
Underlying concept for Israeli measures aimed at replacing traditional Arab-Palestinian political, cultural and geographic property, names, and features with Jewish/ Hebrew ones. These include all forms of land dispossession, including expulsion of the native Palestinian population from their homeland and demolition of their villages, the building and subsidization of settlements, destruction of historical sites, civil institutions and residential areas, and the replacement of the Palestinian presence with the dominant Israeli-Jewish one. In recent years the focus was mostly on the Judaization of Jerusalem, with Israeli efforts to establish a growing Jewish presence through settlement expansion, creation of settler enclaves in the Old City, Silwan and Sheikh Jarrah, initiatives like the Light Rail (connecting West Jerusalem with the settlements), and tourism or archeological projects such as the City of David, while, at the same time, restricting Palestinian presence and ignoring or distorting their narrative.
JUDEA AND SAMARIA
Biblical names for areas approximating the current northern (Samaria) and southern (Judea) portions of the West Bank, applied by Israel to form the main administrative division under which the Israeli military, settlements, and occupation authorities classify the West Bank’s smaller sub-divisions.
JUDEA FIRST PLAN
Proposal made by former Israeli Defense Minister Ben Eliezer in 2002 to withdraw Israeli troops from Hebron and surrounding areas in the southern West Bank (Judea). The plan's core concept is based on the "Gaza and Bethlehem" security plans, which involved a phased withdrawal from Palestinian areas reoccupied during the Second Intifada and resumption of Palestinian security control.
(acronym for Kahane LaKnesset – English: Kahane to the Knesset) Two ultra-right-wing organizations that advocate the expulsion of all Arabs from Israel. Kach was formed by Rabbi Meir Kahane in the early 1970s and represented in the Knesset in 1984, but was then barred from elections for inciting racism. After Kahane’s assassination in 1990, Kahane Chai (Kahane Lives) split from Kach. The Israeli government banned group members from serving in the Knesset because of their racist orientation. In March 1994, after settler Baruch Goldstein murdered 29 Muslims in Hebron’s Ibrahimi Mosque, both groups were outlawed. Kach and Kahane Chai are considered terrorist organizations by Israel, Canada, the European Union, and the US. A number of Kach followers later became co-founders or members of the far right-wing Lehava movement and/or Otzma Yehudit Party.
(English: Forward) Centrist Israeli political party founded by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, after he formally left the Likud party in November 2005, that would allow him to carry out his controversial policy of unilateral disengagement. Kadima became the strongest party as a result of the March 2006 elections (29 of 120 Knesset seats). Kadima defined itself as a broad popular movement working to ensure the future of Israel as a Jewish democratic state and was led by Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni from September 2008 until the party’s split in 2012, when the progressive wing broke away to form a new center-left party, Hatnuah. In the February 2009 elections, Kadima won 28 out of the 120 Knesset seats and retained its position as the largest party, albeit as opposition. In the 2013 election, one year after its split, Kadima became the smallest party in the Knesset (2 seats); it was later disbanded and did not compete in any further elections.
(English: Struggle) Home-made rockets developed by Fatah that are much less common than the Qassam rockets of Hamas (see Qassam). They were reportedly used for the first time on 3 October 2004, when fired against the Netzarim settlement in the Gaza Strip.
Three-member Commission of Enquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut formed by the Israeli government under pressure from its own peace movement to look into Israel’s role in the 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacres in Lebanon. In its report, issued on 3 February 1983, the commission, headed by Israeli Supreme Court president Yitzhak Kahan, determined that the massacre was carried out by Phalangists acting on their own, but with Israel’s knowledge. Therefore, while no Israeli was directly responsible for the events, Israel had indirect responsibility for the massacre since its army held the area. Then Defense Minister Ariel Sharon was found responsible for ignoring the danger of carnage and revenge (for the murder of two days earlier) when he approved the entry of the Phalangists into the camps as well as for not taking appropriate measures to prevent bloodshed. Army Chief-of-Staff Rafael Eitan failed to give the appropriate orders to prevent the massacre, Prime Minister Menachem Begin was responsible for not exercising greater involvement and awareness in the matter of introducing the Phalangists into the camps, and Foreign Minister Yitzhak Shamir erred by not taking action after being alerted by Communications Minister Zippori. The Commission recommended that the Defense Minister resign, that the Director of Military Intelligence not continue in his post, and other senior officers be removed.
English: Blue and White) Israeli centrist electoral list established to run in the April 2019 Knesset elections by the Israel Resilience Party, Yesh Atid and Telem. The political alliance, which is led by Benny Gantz and Yair Lapid, is considered Zionist-liberal in its ideology. In the April 2019 elections it won 26.1% of the votes, becoming – together with the Likud – the strongest party (with each gaining 35 seats). In the subsequent September 2019 elections, Kahol Lavan won 25.9% of the votes and 33 seats – one more than Likud.
Israeli law, named after Deputy Attorney-General Erez Kaminitz, passed in the Israeli Knesset on 5 April 2017 as an amendment to the 1965 Planning and Construction Law, that increases enforcement against unauthorized building in Israel proper. Opponents say this law is directed against Palestinians in Israel and intends to increase the number of home demolitions in their villages and towns, although they already suffer from housing shortages and discriminatory state policies.
(also spelled Qaraite) Ancient Jewish community or sect which challenges the authority of rabbinic Judaism by accepting the authority of the Hebrew Bible but not of the Oral Law that is codified in the Talmud. Accordingly, it maintains its own synagogues, butchers, and cemeteries. The vast majority of the Karaites live in Israel, where their community is estimated at 40,000. In early 2019, members of the Karaite community have joined Palestinians and others in opposing the planned construction of a cable car in the city, which would pass over a cemetery belonging to them, as according to their faith, putting a “roof” over a cemetery is equivalent to desecrating it.
(also: Karine A Affair) Freighter seized by Israeli commandos in the Red Sea on 3 January 2002. On board were 50 tons of weapons, including Katyusha rockets and anti-tank missiles. Altogether, the weapons were worth an estimated $3 million. The Karine A was purchased in Lebanon in October 2001 by Adel Mughrabi, a senior PA figure, and Fuad Shubaki, the PA’s chief procurement and finance officer. The captain of the vessel was Fatah activist Omar Akawi, a PA Coastal Police officer and senior Fatah member, who an Israeli military court sentenced to 25 years in prison in October 2004. Two officers, Riad Abdullah and Ahmed Khiris, were each sentenced to 17 years in prison. A fourth suspect, Salem As-Sankri, was set free in a Hizbullah prisoner swap after all charges against him were dropped. Fuad Shubaki was jailed in the Jericho PA-jail. After the Israeli raid in the prison in 2006, Shubaki had to appear before an Israeli judge and was sentenced to 20 years in jail.
KARM AL MUFTI
(Hebrew: Kerem Hamufti, also known as ‘Mufti’s grove’) An originally 110-dunum plot of land in Jerusalem, cultivated with olive trees, which stretches downhill from Sheikh Jarrah (Shepherds Hotel area) towards the edges of the Wadi Al-Joz Industrial Zone. At the request of the ILA, the state formally expropriated the land in March 2007 under the rubric of "acquisition for public needs", thus reclassifying its “green area” status to make way for a planned Jewish neighborhood at the site. The same year, the ILA conveyed a long-term lease for 30 dunums of land to the Ateret Cohanim settler organization "for agricultural purposes." In recent years, Israel has been leveling large areas of the Karm Al-Mufti lands to make way for a police parking lot adjacent to the Ministry of the Interior as well as for the relocation of the street right above it in preparation for the new settlement enclave arising at the site of the destroyed Shepherds Hotel.
see Grad Rockets
(also: Kedem Visitor Center) Controversial seven-story compound to be built on the Givati parking lot site at the entrance to Silwan by the Elad settler group, which operates the adjacent City of David, in coordination with the Israeli Nature and Parks Authority. The plan includes a visitor’s center, a Bible center, a museum, a parking lot, shops, and a stop for the planned Israeli cable car over the Holy Basin on its rooftop. The compound will also serve as the future headquarters of Elad. For Palestinians and other critics, the plan is an example of Israel’s privatization of tourist sites and national parks to settler organizations in Jerusalem. It is also seen as Judaizing Silwan and preventing a political solution for Jerusalem. On 14 July 2017, a notice appeared in the media announcing the approval of plans for the construction, which are yet to be implemented.
KENDALL TOWN PLAN/SCHEME
Plan named after former British Mandate city planner Henry Kendall, commissioned by Jordan in 1966, which envisioned that Jerusalem would become a major administrative and commercial center. The plan was based on an earlier version (published in 1944 for the British Mandatory authorities), adapting it to the changed geo-political realities. It covered an area of 34,750 acres/139,000 dunums and aimed at linking all scattered Palestinian residential areas within one integrated planning area and at creating space for industrial and commercial use along with thousands of new residential buildings. In particular, the plan foresaw residential areas to the north, agriculture in the valleys, heavy industry in the Anata area, and arterial roads to Ramallah, Bethlehem and Amman. However, instead of implementing the Kendall Scheme, Israel's extension and annexation of East Jerusalem excluded half of the suburbs and its land expropriation deprived Jerusalem's Palestinians of much of their territory, while building tens of thousands of dwellings as envisioned by Kendall Scheme but for Israelis only.
(English: The Foundation Fund; also known as United Israel Appeal) Financial arm and central fundraising organization of the state of Israel, which was founded in 1920 at the World Zionist Conference in London to finance the activities of the Zionist movement in the Yishuv. After the foundation of the state of Israel, it became a national institution. Today it is registered as a public benefit company and enjoys status as a non-profit organization in Israel.
KERRY KEY PRINCIPLES
proposals presented by then US Secretary of State John Kerry in February (and December) 2016 (the last year of the Obama Administration) to renew talks between Israelis and Palestinians in a regionally supported framework. Jordanian King Abdullah and Egyptian President Al-Sissi supported the plan, while Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu did not. Kerry’s plan was based on the following six principles: (1) Secure and recognized borders between Israel and a viable Palestinian state, land swaps to be based on 1967 borders; (2) Two states for two peoples, based on the UN Partition Plan (Resolution 181), with mutual recognition and equal rights for all respective citizens; (3) A just, fair and realistic solution for the Palestinian refugees that is consistent with ‘two states for two peoples’; (4) Agreed-on solution for Jerusalem as the internationally recognized capital of both countries with assured freedom of access to holy sites; (5) Ensuring Israel’s security needs and effective self-defense and ensuring Palestinian ability to provide security in a non-militarized state; (6) End the conflict and all outstanding claims, enabling normalization of ties and regional security (as envisaged in the Arab Peace Initiative).
Direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians launched on 29 July 2013 by then US Secretary of State John Kerry in a bid to revive the peace process with the aim of reaching a final status agreement within nine months. Following months of talks, both sides worked out a common "framework" based on the Clinton Parameters. However, the mission failed when Israel refused to release the last agreed group of Palestinian prisoners and approved over 700 new settlement units in East Jerusalem. Negotiations were officially suspended by Israel on 24 April 2014, one day after Fatah and Hamas signed an agreement to form a unity government.
KHAN YOUNIS MASSACRE
Israeli assault on the Gaza Strip town of Khan Younis on 2-3 November 1956 during an army operation to reopen the Egyptian-blockaded Straits of Tiran (Suez Crisis), in which Israeli forces shot and killed 200-300 Palestinians (Israeli historian Benny Morris reported approximately 200, an UNRWA report recorded 275).
Arab League Summit that convened in the wake of the June 1967 War in Khartoum from 29 August to 1 September 1967. The summit adopted a consensus resolution regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict, calling, inter alia, for a continued state of belligerency with Israel, ending the Arab oil boycott declared during the War, and the three ‘No’s’ in the continued struggle against Israel: no peace, no negotiations with Israel, and no recognition of Israel. Saudi Arabia, Libya, and Kuwait further agreed to set up a fund for countries that suffered as a result of the 1967 War.
Notorious detention and interrogation facility in South Lebanon used by Israel and partially staffed by its proxy militia, the South Lebanese Army (SLA), during Israel's 22-year occupation of south Lebanon. Detainees, including members of the resistance and their relatives as well as civilians who would not collaborate with the Israelis or the SLA, were held without charge for up to 17 years and were routinely tortured. In 1998, as part of a prisoner exchange with the Lebanese resistance, Israel released 55 Khiam prisoners and handed over 44 bodies in return for the bodies of three Israeli soldiers. The prison was abandoned following Israel’s retreat from South Lebanon in 2000 after local Lebanese residents broke into the prison and freed the remaining inmates.
Attack by Haganah forces on the Palestinian village of Khisas on the Lebanese-Syrian border on 18 December 1947, machine gun shots and grenade throwing led to at least 10 (as reported by the New York Times at the time) Palestinians being killed.
(plural: kibbutzim) Communities in Israel proper, often on expropriated Palestinian land, or settlements in the OPT that were originally socialist-agricultural but have become increasingly industrial, in which most property used to be collectively owned.